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Lex Mercatoria: Electronic Commerce and Encryption Pages

Lex Mercatoria

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Lex Mercatoria: Electronic Commerce and Encryption Pages


Electronic Commerce & Encryption

Electronic Commerce Documents

Cryptography /Encryption

Agreements
Interest Groups
Industry
AES Algorithm (Advanced Encryption Standard)
NIST AES
AES Winner announced October 2nd, 2000
Data Encryption Standard (DES)
Reference & Links
Security Software
Secure Point to Point Connection and File Sharing
Encrypted Files and Mail
Linux Encryption Solutions
Steganography
Organizations
Commercial
Other
Biometrics
Quantum physics cryptography

Digital Signatures

Electronic Contracts and Electronic Commercial Documents

EDI - Electronic Data Interchange

Electronic Payments

Solutions
Discusion
Writings and Links to them

Authentication Solutions - Virtual Identities

Government and other Documents: Stands/Approaches to Electronic Commerce

Cybercrime

Privacy

NoN-Privacy / Security?

Interest Groups & Campaigns

Industry

Electronic Commerce Resource Sites


Endnotes

Endnotes





Lex Mercatoria: Electronic Commerce and Encryption Pages




Electronic Commerce & Encryption




Electronic Commerce Documents

UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996)  

WTO Declaration on Global Electronic Commerce (Adopted on 20 May 1998)  

OECD Recommendation of the OECD Council Concerning Guidelines for Consumer Protection in the Context of Electronic Commerce (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) 1999  

Summary Of Electronic Commerce And Digital Signature Legislation McBride Baker & Coles stellar

Technology-Neutral, Non-PKI, Minimalist E-Commerce Legislation

EFF "Privacy - Crypto - Export Restrictions, ITAR and EAR" Archive Electronic Frontier Foundation

eCommerce & Legal issues at ‹http://ecominfocenter.com/› eComInfoCenter.com

For other documents related to electronic commerce (such as EDI or cryptography) look under the relevant subject heading below.




Cryptography /Encryption

This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

Cryptography applied in various ways and circumstances is essential for security and trust:

In sum, read, cryptography impacts upon every aspect of considered e-commerce and private e-business relations.

#agreements Agreements

#groups Interest Groups

#aes AES Algorithm (Advanced Encryption Standard)

#reference Reference

#software Security Software

Crypto Law Survey Bert Jaap Koops

A Short History of Cryptography by Fred Cohen from Introductory Information Protection "a book about keeping people and organizations from harm caused by information. It requires little or mathematics and is suitable as a text for a graduate level or advanced undergraduate course." Fred Cohen & Associates

Why Cryptography Is Harder Than It Looks by Bruce Schneier CTO and Founder Counterpane Internet Security, Inc.




Agreements

Wassenaar Arrangement




Interest Groups

Center for Democracy and Technology

CryptoRights Foundation

Cyber Rights and Cyber Liberties UK on the Wassenaar Arrangement at Cyber Rights & Cyber Liberties

Electronic Frontier Foundation

International Cryptography Campaign

Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights

Global Internet Liberty Campaign

Free Congress Foundation

Echelonwatch

the American Civil Liberties Union

Electronic Frontiers Texas

Center for Media Education

Industry

Direct Marketing Association

TRUSTe




AES Algorithm (Advanced Encryption Standard)
NIST AES

AES Algorithm Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Development Effort, Computer Security Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST is an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department's Technology Administration see Encryption toolkit Advanced Encryption Standard of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Report

"SPECIAL NOTE - Intellectual Property NIST reminds all interested parties that the adoption of AES is being conducted as an open standards-setting activity. Specifically, NIST has requested that all interested parties identify to NIST any patents or inventions that may be required for the use of AES. NIST hereby gives public notice that it may seek redress under the antitrust laws of the United States against any party in the future who might seek to exercise patent rights against any user of AES that have not been disclosed to NIST in response to this request for information."

Information Technology Laboratory

"Our goals are to strengthen the U.S. economy and improve the quality of life by providing the information technology industry and users with needed measurements and standards and to provide NIST with high quality information technology services."

Federal Information Processing Standards Publications

AES entry on Wikipedia

AES Winner announced October 2nd, 2000

Rijndael by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen   of Belgium.

publications Vincent Rijmen list DBLP Bibliography Server list 2everything

Joan Daemen list DBLP Bibliography Server list 2everything

Cryptix aes "an international volunteer effort to produce robust, open-source cryptographic software libraries. Cryptix products are free, both for commercial and non-commercial use and are being used by developers all over the world. Development is currently focused on Java."

The Rijndael algorithm is based on a block cipher algorithm (The Block Cipher Square Algorithm) described in an article in the October, 1997 issue of DDJ  

6{ 5 Finalists, August 1999

Twofish by Bruce Schneier, John Kelsey, Doug Whiting, David Wagner, Chris Hall and Niels Ferguson of Counterpane Systems in Minneapolis, Minn. (Schneier also developed the Blowfish symmetric algorithm).

Rijndael by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen of Belgium.

Serpent * by Ross Anderson (Cambridge University, UK), Eli Biham (Israel) and Lars Knudsen (Norway).

MARS by IBM, Armonk, NY. (previous: DES back in the '70s)

RC6 by Ron Rivest and RSA Laboratories in Bedford, Mass. (previous: RSA public key algorithm and several other well known hashing and private key algorithms)

Data Encryption Standard (DES)

Data Encryption Standard (DES)

Data Encryption Standard (DES), Triple DES, and Skipjack Algorithms

Triple DES Validation List

Overview Triple DES Encryption

Easy DES File Encryption Software for Organizations!

Strong Encryption Package Federal Information Processing

Announcing the Standard for Data Encryption Standard (DES) FIPS PUB 46-2, Supersedes FIPS PUB 46-1, 1988 January 22 Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 46-2 1993 December 30.




Reference & Links

The Crypto Link Farm - Encryption and Security-related Resources A few of (the many) mirrors auto-updated:  

Security and Encryption-related Resources and Links by Peter Gutmann

Security pointers by Tom Dunigan

Security and Cryptography by Mark McCutcheon

Crypto - Cryptography resource on the Web by Matt Blaze

Cryptography and Security [+] by Ronald L. Rivest [+]

Crypto Page Paulo Barreto

Encryption and Security Tutorial

Cryptome

A Cryptographic Compendium   alternative location

EFF "Privacy - Crypto - Export Restrictions, ITAR and EAR" Archive Electronic Frontier Foundation

Cryptography Francis Litterio

Security & Cryptography standards by Michael Waidner

Security and Encryption * Quick Links

Encryption and Security Tutorial

Encryption, Security & Privacy News All E-Commerce

Cryptographic Algorithms Mach5 Cryptography Archives

What's Hot in Encryption - Bulletins EFF

Cryptography: The Study of Encryption Cryptography Francis Litterio

How electronic encryption works and how it will change your business Viacorp . com

Security Encryption PGP

GPG - The GNU Privacy Guard (Open PGP)

The Linux Encryption-HOWTO Homepage Linux Encryption HOWTO by Marc Mutz

OpenPGP (RFC2440)

Snake Oil Warning Signs: Encryption Software to Avoid an FAQ by Matt Curtin

Mitre CVE - Security Dictionary of Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures

Counterpane

Infosyssec - Security Portal for Information System Security Professionals




Security Software
Secure Point to Point Connection and File Sharing

Open Secure Shell - openSSH

Linux FreeS/WAN Secure point to point connection anywhere on the Internet, Strong Encryption. Developed outside the United States and not subject to US export restrictions.

Linux PPTP Server the PPTP Linux Server works with WinNT PPTP clients and C. S. Ananian's PPTP Linux clients. Virtual Private Networking technology enables the use the public Internet backbone for private data communications, encryption and encapsulation technology, permitting the carving out of a private channel/passageway through the Internet.

Bizee free download of V-ONE technology that permits secure connection with other users of the same technology. It performs authentication and uses 168-bit Triple DES encryption to secure e-commerce, as well as to encrypt data being transmitted as part of auctions, chat rooms, e-mail and classified advertisements. Adequate security has been a big obstacle to business-to-business commerce to date... July 1999

Gnutella

Gnut Linux/Unix console gnutella clone

Freenet (The Free Network Project Homepage) "Re-Wiring the Internet". Hosted by Source Forge "Freenet is a peer-to-peer network designed to allow the distribution of information over the Internet in an efficient manner, without fear of censorship. Freenet is completely decentralized, meaning that there is no person, computer, or organisation in control of Freenet or essential to its operation. This means that Freenet cannot be attacked like centralized peer-to-peer systems such as Napster. Freenet also employs intelligent routing and caching meaning that it learns to route requests more efficiently, automatically mirrors popular data, makes network flooding almost impossible, and moves data to where it is in greatest demand. All of this makes it much more efficient and scalable than systems such as Gnutella."

Mojo Nation claimed to be "a revolutionary new publishing and content-sharing network. [That]combines the flexibility of the marketplace and the distributed computing power of the Internet to go far beyond current filesharing systems... Mojo Nation is building an efficient, massively scalable and secure marketplace for distributors and consumers of digital content."

Wheres dot com Internet file sharing programs

Encrypted Files and Mail

#linux Linux Solutions

#commercial Commercial

UP - Ultimate Privacy

Speek Freely

Speak Free Secure fully encrypted Chat Program

Speak Freely Unix Windows

HushMail web based secure e-mail

Freedom "Untraceable" privacy system from ZeroKnowledge

1on1 Secure Mail The free-to-use service that requires the use of a sizable e-mail Windows PC client, which may be downloaded from the site or obtained on CD.

Mutt a pgp-aware mailer

SUIDNet "secure IRC network"

The International PGP Page

Top level home page for www.pgp.net

GPG - GNU Privacy Guard Download GPG which uses only free algorithms, and conforming to the OpenPGP standard

OpenPGP (RFC2440)

PGP Sites #fix

PGP DH v RSA FAQ

Linux Encryption Solutions

See also Linux Encryption

GPG - GNU Privacy Guard Download GPG which uses only free algorithms, and conforming to the OpenPGP standard

Project Aegypten (Free Software Sphinx-Clients) for Linux "The Sphinx project launched by German authorities aims to improve secure email exchange... Proprietary products are already on the way, but with the project ?gypten there is now also a Free Software solution going to be realized for popular mail user agents (sphinx-enabling KMail and mutt are essential goals)."

SuSE Linux (since v7.2) provides a Secure Crypto File System based on Twofish

The Linux Encryption-HOWTO Homepage Linux Encryption HOWTO by Marc Mutz

Encrypting Disks

Encrypting your Disks with Linux Doobee. R. Tzeck

PPDD requires recompiling (patching) the Linux kernel to allow strong encryption and a special device. Good documentation.

TCFS involves the running of a daemon which exports an encrypted filesystem as an NFS share.

Crypto Kernel Patch a patch for any given Linux kernel to make the loopback device use encryption algorithms.

BestCrypt Jetico

Steganography

Steghide

Outguess Steganography

StegFS - A Steganographic File System for Linux

Organizations

Internet Engineering Task Force

IEEE Computer Society

International Association for Cryptography Research

National Security Agency U.S.A.

National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST is an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department's Technology Administration

NCSA

DSS Defense Security Service

National Infrastructure Protection U.S. Department of Homeland Security

The Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office (CIAO) moved to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security

ANSI - American National Standards Institute

National Information Assurance Partnership

Office of Information Security

International Telecommunication Union

Internet Security Alliance a non-profit collaboration between EIA and Carnegie Mellon's CERT Coordination Center (CERT/CC), with a diverse and international membership

ETSI Telecom Standards

SET Secure Electronic Transactions

Association for Computing Machinery

SANS Institute

CSI - Computer Security Institute

TruSecure

CERT a center of Internet security expertise

 

Commercial

RSA Data Security RSA

RSA Security "the most trusted name in e-security"

RSA Security Incorporated owned key encryption patents (US) which expired September 26th 2000.

Baltimore Security

Other

UP - Ultimate Privacy

VeriSign

Speek Freely

Speak Free Secure fully encrypted Chat Program

Speak Freely Unix Windows

Crypto-Central SHA algorithm MD5 etc. Delphi: Advanced encryption Components

Biometrics

The Biometric Consortium

The International Biometric Society

Biometrics A Journal of the International Biometric Society

Biometric Consortium

Biometrics

Biometric Encryption information

The Bio API

VeriSign

Quantum physics cryptography

NTT Japan

Almaden Research Lab IBM

Los Alamos

British Telecom




Digital Signatures

This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures (2001)

Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 2000, United States

is law, granting (from 1st October, 2000) electronic signatures the same binding legal status as hand-written signatures and thereby making the signing of enforceable contracts online possible on the click of a mouse, with all that that may imply.

Bill

"A bill to regulate interstate commerce by electronic means by permitting and encouraging the continued expansion of electronic commerce through the operation of free market forces, and for other purposes"

Interdisciplinary Centre for Law & Information Technology, ICRI

Legal Aspects of the E-Revolution (archived site) European Commission - Information Society Directorate-General

Internet Law & Policy Forum "dedicated to promoting the global growth of e-commerce by contributing to a better understanding of the particular legal issues which arise from the cross border nature of the electronic medium"

Links on Law, Cryptography and Electronic Communications Prepared by Juan A. Avellan of the Information Technology Law Unit, Queen Mary and Westfield College

Law Center on Electronic Signatures

Global E-Commerce Law Baker & McKenzie

The CyberNotary Committee Science and Technology Section of the American Bar Assocation co Chairs: Theodore S. Barassi & Joseph H. Alhadeff

Digital Notary Systems American Bar Association

Digital Signatures Guidelines American Bar Association




Electronic Contracts and Electronic Commercial Documents

This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

ebXML The UN and OASIS effort: "Creating a Single Global Electronic Market"

Monthly Archives for ebxml-awareness

Electronic Business XML Initiative (ebXML) The XML Cover Pages by Robin Cover  

XAML (Transaction Authority Markup Language) "vendor neutral that enables the coordination and processing of online transactions in the rapidly developing in the rapidly emerging world of XML web services" backed by Hewlet Packard, IBM, Oracle, and Sun. XAML Cover Page FAQ

Bolero *

Bolero backed by about 120 banks and logistics firms is trying to set up a global standard that would be accepted by governments, shippers, and banks. In doing so the plan to tackle such age old legal concepts as the bill of lading. Bolero plans to use an encrypted communication network to shuffle documents around the world, a process that's now hampered by incompatible computer systems and bureaucrats. Bolero is owned 50-50 by the TT Club , a body that (insures &) represents the world's port authorities and logistics operators; and S.W.I.F.T. - the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, a bank-owned cooperative that supplies messaging services and software to 6,000 financial institutions in 175 countries. Between them, the two organisations have 12,500 members who in turn deal with nearly every company that conducts cross-border trade - the two organizations represent the most powerful players in international trade, including some of the world's biggest banks and shipping companies. Bolero went live on September 27, 1999. Bolero.net should enable companies worldwide to make dramatic savings in their trading costs. There are four distinct categories, basic, corporate, enterprise and premier, to meet the needs of all users according to company size and the volume of trade conducted, with charges starting from $2000. See Unclogging International Trade by David Clarke 8.Jul.99.PDT

eOriginal Electronic Original (Steven Bisbee). From 1999

"eOriginal, Inc. has developed and markets, under two U.S. patents, a fully integrated transaction system that delivers the trusted means for producing electronic documents that are unique, secure and reliable for all business and legal purposes. The company's product suite, marketed as eOriginal, enables the creation of the Electronic Original."




EDI - Electronic Data Interchange

This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

Electronic Commerce and EDI at NRCCL's Law and Information Technology Links Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law NRCCL

check UNECE for the United Nations/EDIFACT Standards.

Revised articles of draft uniform rules on the legal aspects of electronic data interchange

United Nations Revised draft model statutory provisions on the legal aspects of electronic data interchange

X12 Transaction Set Index Version 3040

Harbinger Now holds Premonos materials

UNeTradeS.net

Electronic Commerce & Electronic Data Interchange: Internet Resources Golden Gate University Library Guide




Electronic Payments

Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium




Solutions

NACHA - Electronic Payments Association "NACHA is a not-for-profit trade association that develops operating rules and business practices for the Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network and for other areas of electronic payments. ? NACHA activities and initiatives facilitate the adoption of electronic payments in the areas of Internet commerce, electronic bill payment and presentment (EBPP), financial electronic data interchange (EDI), international payments, electronic checks, electronic benefits transfer (EBT) and student lending. We also promote the use of electronic payment products and services, such as Direct Deposit and Direct Payment.

NACHA represents more than 12,000 financial institutions through our network of regional ACH associations.? We have over 600 members in our seven industry councils and corporate Affiliate Membership program."

Internet Council - NACHA

Project ACTION "a program to develop a payment product for Internet transactions utilizing Automated Clearing House (ACH) credits"

E-Cash Technologies Inc. "global software solutions that extend and enhance physical-world payment methods"

Cybercash "VeriSign and CyberCash join forces to offer complete e-commerce solutions"

Globeset Trinitech "securing payment in the digital age"

Mobey Forum "a financial industry-driven forum, whose mission is to encourage the use of mobile technology in financial services ... - such as payment, remote banking and brokerage"

Paypal Confinity. Paypal now Nokia approved allows you to make instant payments to anyone with a cell phone, two-way pager, or handheld device, such as the Palm? organizer. Permits such things as the settlement of debts, borrowing of cash and splitting of bills/ expenses without the hassle of going to ATMs or keeping track of debts. Paypal is free and works seamlessly with your existing credit card and bank account. PayPal? software can be "beamed" to your friend or business associate who can then be "beamed" money instantly. The system charges your credit card when you next sync your device, and your friend can register later at PayPal.com.

E-Commerce Guide

BigStep Build your own web-based e-commerce site, free service

ECML Electronic Commerce Modeling Language (ECML) is to be a universal format for wallets and merchant web sites. ECML uses a set of uniform field names to streamlines the process by which merchants collect electronic data for shipping, billing, and payment. Its development is a collaboration between: American Express, AOL, Compaq, CyberCash, IBM, MasterCard, Microsoft, SETCo, Sun Microsystems, Transactor Networks, Trintech, and Visa. 18/06/1999

FpML FpML, an XML-based markup language that allows for Net-based integration of services such as electronic trading and risk analysis backed by IBM, PricewaterhouseCoopers and J.P. Morgan. 18/06/1999

WorldPay

NetBanx

Payment mechanisms designed for the Internet by Michael Peirce

Digital Money, Credit Cards, and Electronic Payment Systems

Page of links to resources on Electronic Money or E-Money by Roy Davies.

DigiCash (went under) Electronic Money (That's What I Want) (Read up on David Chaum) Article by Steven Levy for HotWired, December 1994. David Chaum Publications How much do you trust Big Brother? interview of David Chaum, 1997 & the Mark Twain Bank

CyberCash

CheckFree "the undisputed leader in moving money electronically"

VeriFone

Millicent (Digital / Compaq)

Open Market

MasterCard

Visa

Hyper Mart free service with advertising part of the Go2Net network

Sitematic monthly charges

MindSpring Biz monthly charges

MS Solutions for small businesses

E-Commerce servers




Discusion

This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

W3C - Electronic Commerce Interest Group? W3C has closed its Ecommerce and Micropayment Activity, but through a number of activities W3C is committed to key factors for success in the evolution of Electronic Commerce.

Guide to Online Payments US Federal Trade Commission

NACHA - Electronic Payments Association NACHA is a not-for-profit trade association that develops operating rules and business practices for the Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network and for other areas of electronic payments. NACHA represents more than 12,000 financial institutions through our network of regional ACH associations.? We have over 600 members in our seven industry councils and corporate Affiliate Membership program.?

Electronic Payments Forum

Electronic Money, or E-Money, and Digital Cash links by Roy Davies

Epayment Links Institute for eCommerce, Carnegie Mellon University

Electronic Commerce, Payment Systems, and Security links by Michael Waidner

Internet Funds Transfer Services - Electronic Payments Elsop - Electronic Software Publishing Corporation

A Bibliography of Electronic Payment Information

Links related to Smart Cards and Electronic Payment Systems

Payment Systems Information Resources Federal Reserve Bank of New York

United States Government Electronic Commerce Policy

European ePayments Observatory

The Future of Money edited by Robert Knautz, 1997 Policy Spotlight

Payment mechanisms designed for the Internet by Michael Peirce

Epayment Solutions - page sponsored by IBM

Joint Electronic Payments Protocol (JEPI) to make it easier for consumers to use multiple payment systems from Web browsers:

World Wide Web Consortium

CommerceNet

Millicent from Digital Equipment Corporation Information

Microsoft: Passport

Electronic Money / Internet Payment Systems

Network Payment Mechanisms and Digital Cash by Michael Peirce

Central Banking Resource Center Mark Bernkopf

e$ Page Robert Hettinga

Debt, Money and Ancient Meme

21st Century Banking Alert Page also Additional Online Resources and BancMail Archive at Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver and Jacobson

A Bibliography of Electronic Payment Information

Writings and Links to them

E-Commerce Times News

A Bibliography of Electronic Payment Systems

Alternative Money Systems New Civilization Network

Money - Past, Present & Future Sources of Information on Monetary History, Contemporary Developments, and the Prospects for Electronic Money maintained by Roy Davies

The Future of Money in the Information Age by the Cato Institute, 1997.

The Surprise Weapon: Private Enterprise Money by E. C. Riegel, 1944.

Array including the Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce and Journal of Internet Purchasing

The Surprise Weapon: Private Enterprise Money by E. C. Riegel, 1944.

Implications for Central Banks of the Development of Electronic Money 11th November 1996 by the Central Banker's Central Bank the Bank for International Settlement, Basle, Switzerland.

Crypto-Anarchy and Virtual Communities by Timothy C. May (1995)

Commerce Related Sites including Banking and Finance




Authentication Solutions - Virtual Identities

Liberty Alliance Project (Sun etc.)

Passport Passport, Hailstorm, .Net etc. Microsoft

Oblix | Identity-Based Security Solutions(TM) "Introducing single log-on for CRM"

The DotGNU Project

Linux-PAM "Pluggable Authentication Modules for Linux is a suite of shared libraries that enable the local system administrator to choose how applications authenticate users."

PAM - Pluggable Authentication Modules

documentation for Linux-PAM

PAM - FAQ

PAM

User Authentication HOWTO "Explains how user and group information is stored and how users are authenticated on a Linux system (PAM), and how to secure your system's user authentication." by Peter Hernberg




Government and other Documents: Stands/Approaches to Electronic Commerce

This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

Electronic commerce in the WTO

Electronic Commerce at the International Chamber of Commerce

United States Government Electronic Commerce Policy

International Sites

A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce THE WHITE HOUSE, July 1, 1997

A Framework For Global Electronic Commerce President William J. Clinton and Vice President Albert Gore, Jr. Washington D.C. 1997

W3C Activities Related to the US "Framework for Global Electronic Commerce"

Electronic Commerce and the European Union

Legal Aspects of the E-Revolution European Commission - Information Society Directorate-General

WTO's work programme on electronic commerce

Electronic Commerce and the European Union ECLIP

EU Initiative in Electronic Commerce 1997

Wassenaar Arrangement

Ecommerce at the Global Information Infrastructure Commission of the Center for Strategic & International Studies

This group backed "The Commerce Standard", described as: a uniform open and free standard for Electronic Commerce. ZiffDavis publisher initiative developed collaboratively with more than 200 top global Internet merchants, IT vendors, analysts, policymakers, consumer advocates, academics and journalists in an effort to establish a set of merchant practices and policies. Topics for Draft 1.0 include: merchant information, product availability, charges and fee information, warranties, product support, search capabilities, privacy, security, payment and billing, receipt of order notification, order status and history, shipping delivery and order execution, cancellations, returns, refunds and customer support. Launched in 12 July 1999, completion planned for December 1999. Global Information Infrastructure.

Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe) An international non-governmental organization, managed by executives of 29 major enterprises in the United States, Europe and Asia, that promotes establishing global rules for electronic commerce over the Internet.

GBDe member companies submit requests for legal arrangements for electronic commerce representing the interest of industries during the first GBDe convention held on 13 September 1999 in Paris, and these will be submitted to the government of each country.

The following nine themes will be covered: (1) authentication and security, (2) consumer credibility, (3) contents/business communication, (4) inter-operability of information infrastructure and governance, (5) intellectual property, (6) control, (7) reliability, (8) protection of private data and (9) taxes/tariffs.

Member companies include: Japan - Fujitsu Ltd., NEC Corp., Toshiba Corp., Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Bank Ltd., Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp; North America - IBM Corp., MCIWorldcom Inc., Nortel Networks Corp., Time Warner Inc. and Walt Disney Co.; Europe - France Telecom, Nokia of Finland, DaimlerChrysler Corp. of Germany and others.




Cybercrime

Convention on Cybercrime Budapest, 2001, Council of Europe

Other COE Pages related to the Convention on Cybercrime

Draft Convention on Cyber-crime (Draft N? 19) politechbot




Privacy

See also Linux Encryption

Electronic Privacy Information Center

P3P WWW Consortium

Encryption, Security & Privacy News All E-Commerce

What's Hot in Encryption - Bulletins EFF

GPG - The GNU Privacy Guard (Open PGP)

Privacy Foundation




NoN-Privacy / Security?

Echelon Watch administered by ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) in conjunction with the Free Congress Foundation, the Electronic Privacy Information Center, Cyber-Rights and Cyber-Liberties (UK) and the Omega Foundation.

Echelon Watch Cyber-Rights & Cyber-Liberties (UK)

Statewatch monitoring the state and civil liberties in the European Union




Interest Groups & Campaigns

This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

Wassenaar Arrangement

Center for Democracy and Technology

Center for Media Education

Cyber Rights and Cyber Liberties U.K a non-profit civil liberties organisation founded by Yaman Akdeniz. Information on Wassenaar and on the UK Freedom of information Files

Distributed.Net

Electronic Freedom Frontier

Electronic Frontier Foundation

Electronic Privacy Information Center

EU Freedom Campaign*

Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights

CryptoRights Foundation

Global Internet Liberty Campaign

International Cryptography Campaign

Echelonwatch

The Internet Law and Policy Forum "dedicated to promoting global growth of e-commerce by contributing to a better understanding of the particular legal issues which arise from the cross border nature of the electronic medium"

Free Congress Foundation

the American Civil Liberties Union

Center for Media Education

Security Forum




Industry

Direct Marketing Association

Interactive Services Association

TRUSTe

Global Information Infrastructure Commission This group backed "The Standard for Internet Commerce", described as: a uniform open and free standard for Electronic Commerce. ZiffDavis publisher initiative developed collaboratively with more than 200 top global Internet merchants, IT vendors, analysts, policymakers, consumer advocates, academics and journalists in an effort to establish a set of merchant practices and policies. Topics for Draft 1.0 include: merchant information, product availability, charges and fee information, warranties, product support, search capabilities, privacy, security, payment and billing, receipt of order notification, order status and history, shipping delivery and order execution, cancellations, returns, refunds and customer support. Launched in 12 July 1999, completion planned for December 1999. Global Information Infrastructure.

Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe) An international non-governmental organization, managed by executives of 29 major enterprises in the United States, Europe and Asia, that promotes establishing global rules for electronic commerce over the Internet.

GBDe member companies submit requests for legal arrangements for electronic commerce representing the interest of industries during the first GBDe convention held on 13 September 1999 in Paris, and these will be submitted to the government of each country.

The following nine themes will be covered: (1) authentication and security, (2) consumer credibility, (3) contents/business communication, (4) inter-operability of information infrastructure and governance, (5) intellectual property, (6) control, (7) reliability, (8) protection of private data and (9) taxes/tariffs.

Member companies include: Japan - Fujitsu Ltd., NEC Corp., Toshiba Corp., Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Bank Ltd., Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp; North America - IBM Corp., MCIWorldcom Inc., Nortel Networks Corp., Time Warner Inc. and Walt Disney Co.; Europe - France Telecom, Nokia of Finland, DaimlerChrysler Corp. of Germany and others.




Electronic Commerce Resource Sites

eComInfoCenter.com

Summary Of Electronic Commerce And Digital Signature Legislation McBride Baker & Coles stellar

E-Business Research Center CIO

E-Commerce Follesdal, Coolconnect (check details)

Technology-Neutral, Non-PKI, Minimalist E-Commerce Legislation

E-Commerce News Archive

Electronic Commerce and EDI NRCCL's Law and Information Technology Links

E-Commerce Project America Online

Electronic Commerce by Michael Waidner

Electronic Commerce Online Resources List maintained by Gilbert & Tobin, Australia

Electronic commerce section of the WTO website

WTO's work programme on electronic commerce

Electronic Commerce at the International Chamber of Commerce

US Government Ecommerce Policy

Ecommerce at the Global Information Infrastructure Commission of the Center for Strategic & International Studies

Electronic Commerce Morino Institute

Electronic Commerce and the European Union

European Internet Forum (including Globalisation and the Information Society; Digital signatures and encryption; Internet Governance)

DTI ECommerce UK Department of Trade and Industry

DTI E-Commerce Directive

Communications and information industries

Electronic Commerce Library American Bar Association: "a research project funded by the European Commission's DG XIII, which seeks to set up a platform on the legal issues of electronic commerce with the objective of providing legal support to EC-funded RTD projects on any issue of law linked to electronic commerce, thereby stimulating expertise and increasing general awareness of the existing or recommended legal framework of electronic commerce."

E-Comm Links E-Commerce Task Force, Canada

Center for Law, Commerce and Technology School of Law University of Washington

Electronic Frontiers Australia "representing Internet users concerned with on-line freedoms"

The Commerce Standard The Standard for Internet Commerce is a uniform open and free standard for Electronic Commerce. ZiffDavis publisher initiative developed collaboratively with more than 200 top global Internet merchants, IT vendors, analysts, policymakers, consumer advocates, academics and journalists in an effort to establish a set of merchant practices and policies. Topics for Draft 1.0 include: merchant information, product availability, charges and fee information, warranties, product support, search capabilities, privacy, security, payment and billing, receipt of order notification, order status and history, shipping delivery and order execution, cancellations, returns, refunds and customer support. Launched in 12 July 1999, completion planned for December 1999. Global Information Infrastructure.

Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe) An international non-governmental organization, managed by executives of 29 major enterprises in the United States, Europe and Asia, that promotes establishing global rules for electronic commerce over the Internet.

GBDe member companies submit requests for legal arrangements for electronic commerce representing the interest of industries during the first GBDe convention held on 13 September 1999 in Paris, and these will be submitted to the government of each country.

The following nine themes will be covered: (1) authentication and security, (2) consumer credibility, (3) contents/business communication, (4) inter-operability of information infrastructure and governance, (5) intellectual property, (6) control, (7) reliability, (8) protection of private data and (9) taxes/tariffs.

Member companies include: Japan - Fujitsu Ltd., NEC Corp., Toshiba Corp., Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Bank Ltd., Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp; North America - IBM Corp., MCIWorldcom Inc., Nortel Networks Corp., Time Warner Inc. and Walt Disney Co.; Europe - France Telecom, Nokia of Finland, DaimlerChrysler Corp. of Germany and others.

Guidelines of the Electronic Commerce and Consumer Protection Group [the "Group" appears to be gone] (America Online, AT&T, Dell Computer Group, IBM, Microsoft, Network Solutions, Time Warner Inc., Visa USA Inc)




Endnotes

Lex Mercatoria

www.lexmercatoria.org

www.jus.uio.no/lm