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Principles of International Commercial Contracts, 1994 - UNIDROIT

Preamble - Purpose of the Principles

Chapter 1 - General Provisions

Article 1.1 - Freedom of Contract

Article 1.2 - No Form Required

Article 1.3 - Binding Character of Contract

Article 1.4 - Mandatory Rules

Article 1.5 - Exclusion or Modification by the Parties

Article 1.6 - Interpretation and supplementation of the Principles

Article 1.7 - Good Faith and Fair Dealing

Article 1.8 - Usages and Practices

Article 1.9 - Notice

Article 1.10 - Definitions

Chapter 2 - Formation

Article 2.1 - Manner of Formation

Article 2.2 - Definition of Offer

Article 2.3 - Withdrawal of Offer

Article 2.4 - Revocation of Offer

Article 2.5 - Rejection of Offer

Article 2.6 - Mode of Acceptance

Article 2.7 - Time of Acceptance

Article 2.8 - Acceptance Within a Fixed Period of Time

Article 2.9 - Late Acceptance. Delay in Transmission

Article 2.10 - Withdrawal of Acceptance

Article 2.11 - Modified Acceptance

Article 2.12 - Writings in Confirmation

Article 2.13 - Conclusion of Contract Dependent on Agreement on Specific Matters or in a Specific Form

Article 2.14 - Contract with Terms Deliberately Left Open

Article 2.15 - Negotiations in Bad Faith

Article 2.16 - Duty of Confidentiality

Article 2.17 - Merger Clause

Article 2.18 - Written Modification Clause

Article 2.19 - Contracting Under Standard Terms

Article 2.20 - Surprising Terms

Article 2.21 - Conflict Between Standard Terms and Non-Standard Terms

Article 2.22 - Battle of Forms

Chapter 3 - Validity

Article 3.1 - Matters Not Covered

Article 3.2 - Validity of Mere Agreement

Article 3.3 - Initial Impossibility

Article 3.4 - Definition of Mistake

Article 3.5 - Relevant Mistake

Article 3.6 - Error in Expression or Transmission

Article 3.7 - Remedies for Non-Performance

Article 3.8 - Fraud

Article 3.9 - Threat

Article 3.10 - Gross Disparity

Article 3.11 - Third Persons

Article 3.12 - Confirmation

Article 3.13 - Loss of Right to Avoid

Article 3.14 - Notice of Avoidance

Article 3.15 - Time Limits

Article 3.16 - Partial Avoidance

Article 3.17 - Retroactive Effect of Avoidance

Article 3.18 - Damages

Article 3.19 - Mandatory Character of the Provision

Article 3.20 - Unilateral Declarations

Chapter 4 - Interpretation

Article 4.1 - Intention of the Parties

Article 4.2 - Interpretation of Statements and Other Conduct

Article 4.3 - Relevant Circumstances

Article 4.4 - Reference to Contract or Statement as a Whole

Article 4.5 - All Terms to be Given Effect

Article 4.6 - Contra Proferentem Rule

Article 4.7 - Linguistic Discrepancies

Article 4.8 - Supplying an Omitted Term

Chapter 5 - Content

Article 5.1 - Express and Implied Obligations

Article 5.2 - Implied Obligations

Article 5.3 - Co-operation between the Parties

Article 5.4 - Duty to Achieve a Specific Result. Duty of Best Efforts

Article 5.5 - Determination of Kind of Duty Involved

Article 5.6 - Determination of Quality of Performance

Article 5.7 - Price Determination

Article 5.8 - Contract for an Indefinite Period

Chapter 6 - Performance

Section 1 - Performance in General

Article 6.1.1 - Time of Performance

Article 6.1.2 - Performance at one Time or in Instalments

Article 6.1.3 - Partial Performance

Article 6.1.4 - Order of Performance

Article 6.1.5 - Earlier Performance

Article 6.1.6 - Place of Performance

Article 6.1.7 - Payment by Cheque or other Instrument

Article 6.1.8 - Payment by Funds Transfer

Article 6.1.9 - Currency of Payment

Article 6.1.10 - Currency Not Expressed

Article 6.1.11 - Costs of Performance

Article 6.1.12 - Imputation of Payments

Article 6.1.13 - Imputation of Non-Monetary Obligations

Article 6.1.14 - Application for Public Permission

Article 6.1.15 - Procedure in Applying for Permission

Article 6.1.16 - Permission Neither Granted Nor Refused

Article 6.1.17 - Permission Refused

Section 2 - Hardship

Article 6.2.1 - Contract to be Observed

Article 6.2.2 - Definition of Hardship

Article 6.2.3 - Effects of Hardship

Chapter 7 - Non-Performance

Section 1 - Non-Performance in General

Article 7.1.1 - Non-Performance Defined

Article 7.1.2 - Interference by the Other Party

Article 7.1.3 - Withholding Performance

Article 7.1.4 - Cure by Non-Performing Party

Article 7.1.5 - Additional Period for Performance

Article 7.1.6 - Exemption Clauses

Article 7.1.7 - Force Majeure

Section 2 - Right to Performance

Article 7.2.1 - Performance of monetary Obligation

Article 7.2.2 - Performance of Non-Monetary Obligation

Article 7.2.3 - Repair and Replacement of Defective Performance

Article 7.2.4 - Judicial Penalty

Article 7.2.5 - Change of Remedy

Section 3 - Termination

Article 7.3.1 - Right to Terminate the Contract

Article 7.3.2 - Notice of Termination

Article 7.3.3 - Anticipatory Non-Performance

Article 7.3.4 - Adequate Assurance of Due Performance

Article 7.3.5 - Effects of Termination in General

Article 7.3.6 - Restitution

Section 4 - Damages

Article 7.4.1 - Right to Damages

Article 7.4.2 - Full Compensation

Article 7.4.3 - Certainty of Harm

Article 7.4.4 - Foreseeability of Harm

Article 7.4.5 - Proof of Harm in case of Replacement Transaction

Article 7.4.6 - Proof of Harm by Current Price

Article 7.4.7 - Harm Due in Part to Aggrieved Party

Article 7.4.8 - Mitigation of Harm

Article 7.4.9 - Interest for Failure to Pay Money

Article 7.4.10 - Interest on Damages

Article 7.4.11 - Manner of Monetary Redress

Article 7.4.12 - Currency in which to Access Damages

Article 7.4.13 - Agreed Payment for Non-Performance

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Principles of International Commercial Contracts, 1994 - UNIDROIT

Chapter 3 - Validity

Article 3.2 - Validity of Mere Agreement

A contract is concluded, modified or terminated by the mere agreement of the parties, without any further requirements.


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