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THE PRINCIPLES OF EUROPEAN CONTRACT LAW - completed and revised version 1998

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL PROVISIONS

Section 1 - Scope of the Principles

Article 1.101 (ex art. 1.101) - Application of the Principles

Article 1.102 - Freedom of contract

Article 1.103 - Mandatory Law

Article 1.104 - Application to questions of consent

Article 1.105 (ex art. 1.103) - Usages and Practices

Article 1.106 (ex art. 1.104) - Interpretation and Supplementation

Article 1.107 (ex Art. 1.113) - Application of the Principles by Way of Analogy

Section 2 - General Obligations

Article 1.201 (ex art. 1.106) - Good Faith and Fair Dealing

Article 1.202 (ex art. 1.107) - Duty to Co-operate

Section 3 - Terminology and Other Provisions

Article 1.301 (ex art. 1.105) - Meaning of Terms

Article 1.302 (ex art. 1.108) - Reasonableness

Article 1.303 (ex art. 1.110) - Notice

Article 1.304 (ex art. 1.111) - Computation of Time

Article 1.305 (ex art. 1.109) - Imputed Knowledge and Intention

CHAPTER 2 - FORMATION

Section 1 - General Provisions

Article 2.101 (ex art. 5.101) - Conditions for the Conclusion of a Contract

Article 2.102 (ex art. 5.102) - Intention

Article 2.103 (ex art. 5.103) - Sufficient Agreement

Article 2.104 (ex art. 5.103 A) - Terms not individually negotiated

Article 2.105 (ex art. 5.106 A) - Merger Clause

Article 2.106 (ex art. 5.106 B) - Written Modification only

Article 2.107 (ex art. 5.108) - Promises binding without acceptance

Section 2 - Offer and Acceptance

Article 2.201 (ex art. 5.201) - Offer

Article 2.202 (ex art. 5.202) - Revocation of an Offer

Article 2.203 (ex art. 5.203) - Lapse of an Offer

Article 2.204 (ex art. 5.204) - Acceptance

Article 2.205 (ex art. 5.205) - Time of Conclusion of the Contract

Article 2.206 (ex art. 5.206) - Time Limit for Acceptance

Article 2.207 (ex art. 5.208) - Late Acceptance

Article 2.208 (ex art. 5.209) - Modified Acceptance

Article 2.209 (ex art. 5.210) - Conflicting General conditions

Article 2.210 (ex art. 5.211) - Professional's written confirmation

Article 2.211 (ex art. 5.212) - Contracts not Concluded through Offer and Acceptance

Section 3 - Liability for negotiations

Article 2.301 (ex art. 5.301) - Negotiations Contrary to Good Faith

Article 2.302 (ex art. 5.302) - Breach of Confidentiality

CHAPTER 3 - AUTHORITY OF AGENTS

Section 1 - General Provisions

Article 3.101 - Scope of the Chapter

Article 3.102 - Categories of Representation

Section 2 - Direct Representation

Article 3.201 - Express, implied and apparent authority

Article 3.202 - Agent acting in exercise of his authority

Article 3.203 - Unidentified Principal

Article 3.204 - Agent acting without or outside his authority

Article 3.205 - Conflict of Interests

Article 3.206 - Subagency

Article 3.207 - Ratification by Principal

Article 3.208 - Third Party's Right with Respect to Confirmation of Authority

Article 3.209 - Duration of Authority

Section 3 - Indirect Representation

Article 3.301 - Intermediaries not acting in the name of a Principal

Article 3.302 - Intermediary's Insolvency or Fundamental Non-performance to Principal

Article 3.303 - Intermediary's Insolvency or Fundamental Non-performance to Third Party

Article 3.304 - Requirement of Notice

CHAPTER 4 - VALIDITY

Article 4.101 (ex art. 6.101) - Matters not Covered

Article 4.102 (ex art. 6.102) - Initial Impossibility

Article 4.103 (ex art. 6.103) - Mistake as to facts or law

Article 4.104 (ex art. 6.104) - Inaccuracy in communication

Article 4.105 (ex art. 6.105) - Adaptation of contract

Article 4.106 (ex art. 6.106) - Incorrect information

Article 4.107 (ex art. 6.107) - Fraud

Article 4.108 (ex art. 6.108) - Threats

Article 4.109 (ex art. 6.109) - Excessive benefit or unfair advantage

Article 4.110 (ex art. 6.110) -Unfair terms which have not been individually negotiated

Article 4.111 (ex art. 6.111) - Third persons

Article 4.112 (ex art. 6.112) - Notice of Avoidance

Article 4.113 (ex art. 4.113) - Time limits

Article 4.114 (ex art. 6.114) - Confirmation

Article 4.115 (ex art. 6.116) - Effect of avoidance

Article 4.116 (ex art. 6.115) - Partial avoidance

Article 4.117 (ex art. 6.117) - Damages

Article 4.118 (ex. art. 6.118) - Exclusion or restriction of remedies

Article 4.119 (ex art. 6.119) - Remedies for non-performance

CHAPTER 5 - INTERPRETATION

Article 5.101 (Ex art. 7.101/ 101A) - General Rules of Interpretation

Article 5.102 (ex art. 7.102) - Relevant Circumstances

Article 5.103 (ex art. 7.103) - Contra Proferentem Rule

Article 5.104 (ex art. 7.104) - Preference to Negotiated Terms

Article 5.105 (ex art. 7.105) - Reference to Contract as a Whole

Article 5.106 (ex art. 7.106) - Terms to Be Given (Full) Effect

Article 5.107 (ex art. 7.107) - Linguistic Discrepancies

CHAPTER 6 - CONTENTS AND EFFECTS

Article 6.101 (ex art. 8.101) - Statements giving rise to contractual obligation

Article 6.102 (replaces 5.108) - Implied obligations

Article 6.103 - Simulation

Article 6.104 (ex art. 2.101) - Determination of Price

Article 6.105 (ex art. 2.102) - Unilateral Determination by a Party

Article 6.106 (ex art. 2.103) - Determination by a Third Person

Article 6.107 (ex art. 2.104) - Reference to a Non Existent Factor

Article 6.108 (ex art. 2.105) - Quality of Performance

Article 6.109 (ex art. 2.109) - Contract for an Indefinite Period

Article 6.110 (ex art. 2.115) - Stipulation in Favour of a Third Party

Article 6.111 (ex art. 2.117) - Change of Circumstances

CHAPTER 7 - PERFORMANCE

Article 7.101 (ex art. 2.106) - Place of Performance

Article 7.102 (ex art. 2.107) - Time of Performance

Article 7.103 (ex art. 2.108) - Early Performance

Article 7.104 - Order of performance

Article 7.105 - Alternative performance

Article 7.106 (ex art. 2.116) - Performance by a Third Person

Article 7.107 (ex art. 2.110) - Form of Payment

Article 7.108 (ex art. 2.111) - Currency of Payment

Article 7.109 (ex art. 2.112) - Appropriation of Performance

Article 7.110 (ex art. 2.113) - Property Not Accepted

Article 7.111 (ex art. 2.114) - Money not Accepted

Article 7.112 - Costs of performance

CHAPTER 8 - NON-PERFORMANCE AND REMEDIES IN GENERAL

Article 8.101 (ex art. 3.101) - Remedies Available

Article 8.102 (ex art. 3.102) - Cumulation of Remedies

Article 8.103 (ex art. 3.103) - Fundamental Non-Performance

Article 8.104 (ex art. 3.104) - Cure by Non-Performing Party

Article 8.105 (ex art. 3.105) - Assurance of Performance

Article 8.106 (ex art. 3.106) - Notice Fixing Additional Period for Performance

Article 8.107 (ex art. 3.107) - Performance Entrusted to Another

Article 8.108 (ex art 3.108) - Excuse Due to an Impediment

Article 8.109 (ex 3.109) - Clause Limiting or Excluding Remedies

CHAPTER 9 - PARTICULAR REMEDIES FOR NON-PERFORMANCE

Section 1 - Right to Performance

Article 9.101 (ex art. 4.101) - Monetary Obligations

Article 9.102 (ex art. 4.102) - Non-monetary Obligations

Article 9.103 (ex art 4.103) - Damages Not Precluded

Section 2 - Right To Withhold Performance

Article 9.201 (ex art 4.201) - Right to Withhold Performance

Section 3 - Termination Of The Contract

Article 9.301 (ex art. 4.301) - Right to Terminate the Contract

Article 9.302 (ex art 4.302) - Contract to be Performed in Parts

Article 9.303 (ex art. 4.303) - Notice of Termination

Article 9.304 (ex art. 4.304) - Anticipatory Non-Performance

Article 9.305 (ex art. 4.305) - Effects of Termination in General

Article 9.306 (ex art. 4.306) - Property Reduced in Value

Article 9.307 (ex art. 4.307) - Recovery of Money Paid

Article 9.308 (ex art 4.308) - Recovery of Property

Article 9.309 (ex art. 4.309) - Recovery for Performance that Cannot be Returned

Section 4 - Price Reduction

Article 9.401 (ex art 4.401) - Right to Reduce Price

Section 5 - Damages and Interest

Article 9.501 (ex art. 4.501) - Right to Damages

Article 9.502 (ex art 4.502) - General Measure of Damages

Article 9.503 (ex art. 4.503) - Foreseeability

Article 9.504 - Loss Attributable to Aggrieved Party (new; previously part of 4.504)

Article 9.505 - Reduction of loss (previously part of 4.504)

Article 9.506 (ex art. 4.505) - Substitute Transaction

Article 9.507 (ex art. 4.506) - Current Price

Article 9.508 (ex art. 4.507) - Delay in Payment of Money

Article 9.509 (ex art. 4.508) - Agreed Payment for Non-performance

Article 9.510 (ex art. 4.509) - Currency by which Damages to be Measured

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Title:

The Principles Of European Contract Law 1998 - (completed and revised version)

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European Union

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1998-07

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principles

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