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The Principles Of European Contract Law 2002 (Parts I, II, and III)

European Union

copy @ Lex Mercatoria

THE PRINCIPLES OF EUROPEAN CONTRACT LAW - Parts I and II revised 1998
(Parts I and II revised 1998, Part III 2002)

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL PROVISIONS

Section 1 - Scope of the Principles

Article 1:101 (ex art. 1.101) - Application of the Principles

Article 1:102 - Freedom of contract

Article 1:103 - Mandatory Law

Article 1:104 - Application to questions of consent

Article 1:105 (ex art. 1.103) - Usages and Practices

Article 1:106 (ex art. 1.104) - Interpretation and Supplementation

Article 1:107 (ex Art. 1.113) - Application of the Principles by Way of Analogy

Section 2 - General Obligations

Article 1:201 (ex art. 1.106) - Good Faith and Fair Dealing

Article 1:202 (ex art. 1.107) - Duty to Co-operate

Section 3 - Terminology and Other Provisions

Article 1:301 (ex art. 1.105) - Meaning of Terms

Article 1:302 (ex art. 1.108) - Reasonableness

Article 1:303 (ex art. 1.110) - Notice

Article 1:304 (ex art. 1.111) - Computation of Time

Article 1:305 (ex art. 1.109) - Imputed Knowledge and Intention

CHAPTER 2 - FORMATION

Section 1 - General Provisions

Article 2:101 (ex art. 5.101) - Conditions for the Conclusion of a Contract

Article 2:102 (ex art. 5.102) - Intention

Article 2:103 (ex art. 5.103) - Sufficient Agreement

Article 2:104 (ex art. 5.103 A) - Terms not individually negotiated

Article 2:105 (ex art. 5.106 A) - Merger Clause

Article 2:106 (ex art. 5.106 B) - Written Modification only

Article 2:107 (ex art. 5.108) - Promises binding without acceptance

Section 2 - Offer and Acceptance

Article 2:201 (ex art. 5.201) - Offer

Article 2:202 (ex art. 5.202) - Revocation of an Offer

Article 2:203 (ex art. 5.203) - Lapse of an Offer

Article 2:204 (ex art. 5.204) - Acceptance

Article 2:205 (ex art. 5.205) - Time of Conclusion of the Contract

Article 2:206 (ex art. 5.206) - Time Limit for Acceptance

Article 2:207 (ex art. 5.208) - Late Acceptance

Article 2:208 (ex art. 5.209) - Modified Acceptance

Article 2:209 (ex art. 5.210) - Conflicting General conditions

Article 2:210 (ex art. 5.211) - Professional's written confirmation

Article 2:211 (ex art. 5.212) - Contracts not Concluded through Offer and Acceptance

Section 3 - Liability for negotiations

Article 2:301 (ex art. 5.301) - Negotiations Contrary to Good Faith

Article 2:302 (ex art. 5.302) - Breach of Confidentiality

CHAPTER 3 - AUTHORITY OF AGENTS

Section 1 - General Provisions

Article 3:101 - Scope of the Chapter

Article 3:102 - Categories of Representation

Section 2 - Direct Representation

Article 3:201 - Express, implied and apparent authority

Article 3:202 - Agent acting in exercise of his authority

Article 3:203 - Unidentified Principal

Article 3:204 - Agent acting without or outside his authority

Article 3:205 - Conflict of Interests

Article 3:206 - Subagency

Article 3:207 - Ratification by Principal

Article 3:208 - Third Party's Right with Respect to Confirmation of Authority

Article 3:209 - Duration of Authority

Section 3 - Indirect Representation

Article 3:301 - Intermediaries not acting in the name of a Principal

Article 3:302 - Intermediary's Insolvency or Fundamental Non-performance to Principal

Article 3:303 - Intermediary's Insolvency or Fundamental Non-performance to Third Party

Article 3:304 - Requirement of Notice

CHAPTER 4 - VALIDITY

Article 4:101 (ex art. 6.101) - Matters not Covered

Article 4:102 (ex art. 6.102) - Initial Impossibility

Article 4:103 (ex art. 6.103) - Mistake as to facts or law

Article 4:104 (ex art. 6.104) - Inaccuracy in communication

Article 4:105 (ex art. 6.105) - Adaptation of contract

Article 4:106 (ex art. 6.106) - Incorrect information

Article 4:107 (ex art. 6.107) - Fraud

Article 4:108 (ex art. 6.108) - Threats

Article 4:109 (ex art. 6.109) - Excessive benefit or unfair advantage

Article 4:110 (ex art. 6.110) -Unfair terms which have not been individually negotiated

Article 4:111 (ex art. 6.111) - Third persons

Article 4:112 (ex art. 6.112) - Notice of Avoidance

Article 4:113 (ex art. 4.113) - Time limits

Article 4:114 (ex art. 6.114) - Confirmation

Article 4:115 (ex art. 6.116) - Effect of avoidance

Article 4:116 (ex art. 6.115) - Partial avoidance

Article 4:117 (ex art. 6.117) - Damages

Article 4:118 (ex. art. 6.118) - Exclusion or restriction of remedies

Article 4:119 (ex art. 6.119) - Remedies for non-performance

CHAPTER 5 - INTERPRETATION

Article 5:101 (Ex art. 7.101/ 101A) - General Rules of Interpretation

Article 5:102 (ex art. 7.102) - Relevant Circumstances

Article 5:103 (ex art. 7.103) - Contra Proferentem Rule

Article 5:104 (ex art. 7.104) - Preference to Negotiated Terms

Article 5:105 (ex art. 7.105) - Reference to Contract as a Whole

Article 5:106 (ex art. 7.106) - Terms to Be Given (Full) Effect

Article 5:107 (ex art. 7.107) - Linguistic Discrepancies

CHAPTER 6 - CONTENTS AND EFFECTS

Article 6:101 (ex art. 8.101) - Statements giving rise to contractual obligation

Article 6:102 (replaces 5.108) - Implied obligations

Article 6:103 - Simulation

Article 6:104 (ex art. 2.101) - Determination of Price

Article 6:105 (ex art. 2.102) - Unilateral Determination by a Party

Article 6:106 (ex art. 2.103) - Determination by a Third Person

Article 6:107 (ex art. 2.104) - Reference to a Non Existent Factor

Article 6:108 (ex art. 2.105) - Quality of Performance

Article 6:109 (ex art. 2.109) - Contract for an Indefinite Period

Article 6:110 (ex art. 2.115) - Stipulation in Favour of a Third Party

Article 6:111 (ex art. 2.117) - Change of Circumstances

CHAPTER 7 - PERFORMANCE

Article 7:101 (ex art. 2.106) - Place of Performance

Article 7:102 (ex art. 2.107) - Time of Performance

Article 7:103 (ex art. 2.108) - Early Performance

Article 7:104 - Order of performance

Article 7:105 - Alternative performance

Article 7:106 (ex art. 2.116) - Performance by a Third Person

Article 7:107 (ex art. 2.110) - Form of Payment

Article 7:108 (ex art. 2.111) - Currency of Payment

Article 7:109 (ex art. 2.112) - Appropriation of Performance

Article 7:110 (ex art. 2.113) - Property Not Accepted

Article 7:111 (ex art. 2.114) - Money not Accepted

Article 7:112 - Costs of performance

CHAPTER 8 - NON-PERFORMANCE AND REMEDIES IN GENERAL

Article 8:101 (ex art. 3.101) - Remedies Available

Article 8:102 (ex art. 3.102) - Cumulation of Remedies

Article 8:103 (ex art. 3.103) - Fundamental Non-Performance

Article 8:104 (ex art. 3.104) - Cure by Non-Performing Party

Article 8:105 (ex art. 3.105) - Assurance of Performance

Article 8:106 (ex art. 3.106) - Notice Fixing Additional Period for Performance

Article 8:107 (ex art. 3.107) - Performance Entrusted to Another

Article 8:108 (ex art 3.108) - Excuse Due to an Impediment

Article 8:109 (ex 3.109) - Clause Limiting or Excluding Remedies

CHAPTER 9 - PARTICULAR REMEDIES FOR NON-PERFORMANCE

Section 1 - Right to Performance

Article 9:101 (ex art. 4.101) - Monetary Obligations

Article 9:102 (ex art. 4.102) - Non-monetary Obligations

Article 9:103 (ex art 4.103) - Damages Not Precluded

Section 2 - Right To Withhold Performance

Article 9:201 (ex art 4.201) - Right to Withhold Performance

Section 3 - Termination Of The Contract

Article 9:301 (ex art. 4.301) - Right to Terminate the Contract

Article 9:302 (ex art 4.302) - Contract to be Performed in Parts

Article 9:303 (ex art. 4.303) - Notice of Termination

Article 9:304 (ex art. 4.304) - Anticipatory Non-Performance

Article 9:305 (ex art. 4.305) - Effects of Termination in General

Article 9:306 (ex art. 4.306) - Property Reduced in Value

Article 9:307 (ex art. 4.307) - Recovery of Money Paid

Article 9:308 (ex art 4.308) - Recovery of Property

Article 9:309 (ex art. 4.309) - Recovery for Performance that Cannot be Returned

Section 4 - Price Reduction

Article 9:401 (ex art 4.401) - Right to Reduce Price

Section 5 - Damages and Interest

Article 9:501 (ex art. 4.501) - Right to Damages

Article 9:502 (ex art 4.502) - General Measure of Damages

Article 9:503 (ex art. 4.503) - Foreseeability

Article 9:504 - Loss Attributable to Aggrieved Party (new; previously part of 4.504)

Article 9:505 - Reduction of loss (previously part of 4.504)

Article 9:506 (ex art. 4.505) - Substitute Transaction

Article 9:507 (ex art. 4.506) - Current Price

Article 9:508 (ex art. 4.507) - Delay in Payment of Money

Article 9:509 (ex art. 4.508) - Agreed Payment for Non-performance

Article 9:510 (ex art. 4.509) - Currency by which Damages to be Measured

THE PRINCIPLES OF EUROPEAN CONTRACT LAW - Part III, 2002
(Parts I and II revised 1998, Part III 2002)

CHAPTER 10: Plurality of parties*

Section 1 - Plurality of debtors*

Article 10:101 Solidary, Separate and Communal Obligations

Article 10:102 When Solidary Obligations Arise

Article 10:103 Liability Under Separate Obligations

Article 10:104 Communal Obligations: Special Rule when Money Claimed for Non-Performance

Article 10:105 Appointment Between Solidary Debtors

Article 10:106 Recourse Between Solidary Debtors

Article 10:107 Performance, Set-Off and Merger in Solidary Obligations

Article 10:108 Release or Settlement in Solidary Obligations

Article 10:109 Effect of Judgment in Solidary Obligations

Article 10:110 Prescription in Solidary Obligations

Article 10:111 Opposability of other Defences in Solidary Obligations

Section 2 - Plurality of creditors*

Article 10:201 Solidary, Separate and Communal Claims

Article 10:202 Apportionment of Separate Claims

Article 10:203 Difficulties of Executing a Communal Claim

Article 10:204 Apportionment of Solidary Claims

Article 10:205 Regime of Solidary Claims

CHAPTER 11. Assignment of Claims*

Section 1 - General Principles*

Article 11:101 Scope of Chapter

Article 11:102 Contractual Claims Generally Assignable

Article 11:103 Partial Assignment

Article 11:104 Form of Assignment

Section 2 - Effects of Assignment As Between Assignor and Assignee*

Article 11:201 Rights Transferred to Assignee

Article 11:202 When Assignment Takes Effect

Article 11:203 Preservation of Assignee's Rights Against Assignor

Article 11:204 Undertakings by Assignor

Section 3 - Effects of Assignment As Between Assignee and Debtor*

Article 11:301 Contractual Prohibition of Assignment

Article 11:302 Other Ineffective Assignments

Article 11:303 Effect on Debtor's Obligation

Article 11:305 Competing Demands

Article 11:306 Place of Performance

Article 11:307 Defences and Rights of Set-Off

Article 11:308 Unauthorised Modification Not Binding on Assignee

Section 4 - Order of Priority between Assignee and Competing Claimants*

Article 11:401 Priorities

CHAPTER 12. Substitution of New Debtor: Transfer of Contract*

Section 1 - Substitution of New Debtor*

Article 12:101 Substitution: General Rules

Article 12:102 Effects of Substitutions on Defences and Securities

Section 2 - Transfer of Contract*

Article 12:201 Transfer of Contract

CHAPTER 13. Set-Off*

Article 13:101 Requirement for Set-Off

Article 13:102 Unascertained Claims

Article 13:103 Foreign Currency Set-Off

Article 13:104 Notice of Set-Off

Article 13:105 Plurality of Claims and Obligations

Article 13:106 Effects of Set-Off

Article 13:107 Exclusion of Right of Set-Off

CHAPTER 14. Prescription*

Section 1 - General Provision*

Article 14:101 Claims Subject to Prescription

Section 2 - Periods of Prescription and their Commencement*

Article 14:201 General Period

Article 14:202 Period for a Claim Established by Legal Proceedings

Article 14:203 Commencement

Section 3 - Extension of Period*

Article 14:301 Suspension in Case of Ignorance

Article 14:302 Suspension in Case of Judicial and Other Proceedings

Article 14:303 Suspension in Case of Impediment Beyond Creditor's Control

Article 14:304 Postponement of Expiry in Case of Negotiations

Article 14:305 Postponement of Expiry in Case of Incapacity

Article 14:306 Postponement of Expiry: Deceased's Estate

Article 14:307 Maximum Length of Period

Section 4 - Renewal of Periods*

Article 14:401 Renewal by Acknowledgement

Article 14:402 Renewal by Attempted Execution

Section 5 - Effects of Prescription*

Article 14:501 General Effect

Article 14:502 Effect on Ancillary Claims

Article 14:503 Effect on Set-Off

Section 6 - Modification by Agreement*

Article 14:601 Agreements Concerning Prescription

CHAPTER 15. Illegality*

Article 15:101 Contracts Contrary to Fundamental Principles

Article 15:102 Contracts Infringing Mandatory Rules

Article 15:103 Partial Ineffectiveness

Article 15:104 Restitution

Article 15:105 Damages

CHAPTER 16. Conditions*

Article 16:101 Types of Condition

Article 16:102 Interference with Conditions

Article 16:103 Effect of Conditions

CHAPTER 17. Capitalisation of Interest*

Article 17:101 When Interest to be Added to Capital

[Note]

Disclaimers

Metadata

SiSU Metadata, document information

Manifest

SiSU Manifest, alternative outputs etc.

Rights: Copyright ©  2002 European Union

 
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