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Lex Mercatoria: Information Technology Pages

© Ralph Amissah, Lex Mercatoria http://lexmercatoria.org/

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Information Technology
Contents  Technology News
Contents  Bandwidth
Contents  Communication
Contents  WWW Origins FAQs & Guides
Contents  Domain Name Registration
Contents  browsers and servers
Contents  Protocols
lateral hop  Electronic Commerce & Encryption
lateral hop  Online Payments
lateral hop  Virtual Identities
Contents  Electronic Publishing & Markup
lateral hop  Intellectual Property
Contents  Open Source - Fresh Memes in Information/Knowledge Sharing (a feast of the commons? / percolation?)
Contents  OSs
Contents  OS - Linux our top pick
Contents  Programming - Scripting and Development Languages
Contents  Backup & Versioning
Contents  Data Management, Search Engine Developers and Linux Databases
Contents  Expert Systems, Artificial Intelligence & Fuzzy Logic
Contents  Virtual Network Computing
Contents  Linux Security
Contents  Hardware
Contents  WWW where it began and some Major Players
Contents  Computer Shows
Contents  Net Security and Security Hacking
Contents  Views of the Information Age
Contents  Information Technology Compendium
0{~title Lex Mercatoria: Information Technology Pages0{~creator Ralph Amissah, Lex Mercatoria http://lexmercatoria.org/0{~date 20040{~subject information technology0{~keyword navigate0{~description Links related to information technology0{~type navigation0{~source Ralph Amissah, Lex Mercatoria http://lexmercatoria.org/0{~links ./index.html; LM;0{~markup url_png no_to0{~ad ../better.ways/toc.html GnuDebianLinuxRubyThanksAndRecommendationWayBetter.png Way Better! 200208240{~cvs $Id: information.technology.lm0,v 1.5 2005-11-28 06:46:59 ralph Exp $1{ *3{ Information Technology4{~technology.news Technology NewsThis set of links is complied to provide you with a quick and convenient location for news sources that we have found particularly useful to date. List General Press Technology News
List Internet News
List Linux News
List PC Press
List Technology News Links

News Links
External Link  News Now - Technology our top pick External Link  Slashdot External Link  Linux Today External Link  Technology News Linx External Link  International Data Corporation

Technology News Hourly, Daily, Weekly
External Link  News Now - Technology our top pick External Link  Slashdot External Link  Linux Today External Link  Wired News External Link  Ars Technica "The PC Enthusiasts Resource" External Link  Forum External Link  Google News: Linux OR Debian OR Knoppix External Link  Google Science & Technology News External Link  Internet dot com News
External Link  Internet Law Linx
External Link  News Linx Internet dot com
External Link  Internet News External Link  Salon Magazine on Technology our top pick External Link  Computer News Daily External Link  PC World Today our top pick Ziff Davis External Link  CNet News . com our top pick External Link  Internet News . com External Link  TechWeb External Link  E-Commerce Times External Link  Technology News International Herald Tribune External Link  CNN Computing External Link  CNN Financial News - Digital Bytes External Link  MSNBC Technology External Link  Anchor Desk Ziff Davis External Link  Time Digital Daily External Link  Personal Technology Walt Mossberg from The Wall Street Journal External Link  The Edge "to arrive at the edge of the world's knowledge"

Linux News
External Link  Top News Stories of the Week External Link  News Now - Technology External Link  Linux (Linux features a lot) our top pickElsewhere off this site: Segment  Linux Links External Link  Linux Today External Link  Linux Journal External Link  Linux Weekly News External Link  Linux Lounge - Ziff Davis UK External Link  Linux Focus External Link  Linux Orbit External Link  Linux World External Link  Forums FAQ External Link  Linux Gazette External Link  Geocrawler Linux e-mails, "Knowledge Archive" External Link  Josh's Linux Guide External Link  Free Linux training materials Linux Training UK

Internet News
External Link  Internet News / Internet World Daily at External Link  Internet.com External Link  Internet World External Link  PC Magazine World Wide Web External Link  Internet User Ziff Davis External Link  Internet Magazine External Link  .Net External Link  Internet Works External Link  NetSurfer Digest External Link  TechWeb External Link  WebMaster Magazine External Link  CIO WebBusiness

Web Server News
External Link  Apache Week(ly)

Other Technology News
External Link  EduPage Information Technology developments4{~bandwidth BandwidthThis list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. Any references to articles on related topics are to provide background into the technologies mentioned. List ADSL
List Cable
List Fiber Optics
List Power Lines
List Wireless

ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
ADSL and DSL lite making use telephone lines for high bandwidth transmission. ADSL transmission is considerably faster than ISDN and claimed to be a bit faster than cable. DSL a lower end development of the technology, is easier to install but provides lower bandwidth, however it is claimed that even this is faster than cable. It is probably also more expensive however.See for example:
External Link  Study: DSL speeds can smoke cable By John Borland and Jim Davis Staff Writers, CNET News.com May 17, 1999, 4:45 p.m. PT "In a broadband drag race between cable modem and DSL access, even low-grade DSL is as much as 12 percent faster than cable--at least during consumers' prime-time evening hours, according to a new study released today."
External Link  G.Lite Offers DSL Power: Standard will push high-speed Net access and create demand for faster PCs. by Nancy Weil, IDG News Service, Boston Bureau June 24, 1999, 11:00 a.m. PT

Cable
Cable offers the potential for high bandwidth together with 24 hour Net access at a modest fixed rate. The offering is most developed in the United States at present.Most cable modems connect to your PC via an Ethernet connection and so require the installation of an Ethernet card in your PC.The most used type of cable modem is the two-way hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) modems that can theoretically achieve down-load speeds in the 3-Mbps to 10-Mbps range with upload speeds of around 128 Kbps to 10 Mbps.The other type being the one-way coaxial modem with an average 2-Mbps down-load speed and requiring a dial-up modem for the upload of data. External Link  Digital Nation sponsored sites: External Link  High Speed Access External Link  Cable ModemsDOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Internet Specification) a cable modem standard.
External Link  Cable Modems March 31, 1999 by Les Freed and Frank J. Derfler, Jr, ZDNet
and
External Link  Time Article
External Link  Broadband game just beginning Fri, 07 May 1999 08:01:26 GMT Michael Fitzgerald and Margaret Kane, ZDNet

Fiber Optics
Providing the potential for the fastest access and its always on.See for example:
External Link  Nortel to Launch World's Fastest Net Technology 04 May 1999, 12:14 PM CST By Martin Stone, Newsbytes. "The new technology is called OPTera 1600G, an optical amplification system providing enough fiber capacity and speed to transport the entire 4 million book collection of the US Library of Congress from Washington, D.C., to Los Angeles in seconds through one single strand of fiber, the company claims."

Power Lines
Tests of the use of power cables have been carried out successfully in a number of countries. It appears to offer a near ubiquitous solution to high bandwidth Net access - at speeds far in excess of cable and available from a source as nearby as your closest electrical socket.

Wireless
Wireless technologies are improving rapidly offering high bandwidth with rapidly declinging costs (in certain regions of the world) making this an increasingly viable alternative to cable with a number of advantages, though always on fixed tariffs are probably not amongst them. External Link  Symbian A partnership to prevent anyone (read Microsoft) from dominating the wireless industry. Partners include Nokia (Finland), Ericsson (Sweden), Motorola (United States) and Matsushita (Japan).4{~communication CommunicationThis list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. Any references to articles on related topics are to provide background into the technologies mentioned. List Chat, Instant Messaging
List p2p, Peer to Peer
List eMail
List Fax Software
List Web Page - Sticky Notes
List News readers & newsgroups
List Internet Telephony
List Remote administration & file transfer
List Whois

Cients
External Link  Mutt Console Client External Link  Evolution External Link  Sylpheed includes a news-reader External Link  KMail

p2p - Peer to Peer
External Link  E Rights Open Source Distributed Capabilities External Link  Freenet Free Network Project External Link  Mojo Nation External Link  Groove Networks External Link  Gnutella
External Link  Gnutella UK

Chat and Instant Messaging
External Link  Jabber External Link  Jabber Central. External Link  Jabber Linux Clients External Link  IMCom Jabber Console client External Link  GAIM Jabber Console client External Link  Everybuddy Jabber Console client External Link  UN*X IRC Clients External Link  IRSSI External Link  IRC Resources External Link  Gnome ICU External Link  LICQ
External Link  X-Chat (Linux IRC client) External Link  Odigo External Link  NetMeeting Microsoft Windows 95 & NT External Link    External Link  Netscape AOL Instant Messaging External Link  Download External Link  TalkCity External Link  Yahoo External Link  Ultimate Chatlist External Link  Forum One "Search over 310,000 Web Forum Discussions"

Mail Servers
External Link  Sendmail External Link  FAQ FTP download External Link  Securemailer IBM External Link    External Link    External Link  Procmail External Link  FAQ FTP Tips External Link  Mailing list archive FTP download External Link  Communigate pricy

Web page Sticky Notes
External Link  Odigo External Link  Utok External Link  Say No to TV opposes Third Voice

Newsreaders
External Link  Google Advanced newsgroup search External Link  Deja - News Groups External Link  Deja Service for Usenet Newsgroups External Link  Mailgate a www based Usenet newsgroup interface/mailgate External Link  Newsreaders External Link  Tin Console External Link  Pan External Link  Sylpheed

Internet Telephony
External Link  OhPhone
External Link  man page
External Link  downloads External Link  Speak Free Secure fully encrypted Chat Program External Link  DownloadsSpeakFreely External Link  AdirVoIP (NetSpeak ex WebPhone) External Link  Vocaltec The Internet Phone Company

Remote administration & file transfer
External Link  OpenSSH ssh & scp (secure connections and transfers) External Link  VNC Virtual Network Computing External Link  Tight VNC External Link  Real VNC External Link  Laplink (ms windows) External Link  PC Anywhere Symantec (Windows)

Whois
External Link  Better Whois4{~faqs WWW Origins FAQs & GuidesThis list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

FAQs

External Link  WWW Frequently Asked Questions, Guides and Manuals CUI External Link  WWW Frequently Asked Questions CUI

WWW Origins

External Link  World Wide Web Consortium WWW Home Page - Where WWW began at Cern (it appears to be loosing its way though. The www consortium has become an exclusive (expensive membership) powerful vendor interest oriented group that seeks it seems, to morph the web to the end of those interests - rather different from the origins of the www) External Link  IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force External Link  NCSA Mosaic External Link  Internet Resources Meta Index External Link  Starting points for Internet Exploration

Book Publishers

External Link  O'Reilly at External Link  ora.com External Link  Wrox Press External Link  Addison Wesley Longman, Computer Science External Link  McGraw Hill, Computing4{~domain.names Domain Name Registration List Domain Name Registration
List Whois
List Domain Name Dispute Resolution

Domain Name Registration
External Link  ICANN the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers External Link  InterNIC .net (.com .org .net) External Link  Name Secure (.com .org .net) External Link  Network Solutions (.com .org .net) External Link  Register .com (.com .org .net +) External Link  WebJump External Link  Nominet (UK) External Link  Internic .com (not to be mistaken with Internic . net) External Link  Name Zero Free domain name registration provided you accept advertising

Whois
External Link  Whois at Global Registry Services NSI Registry External Link  Better-Whois External Link  Whois InterNIC External Link  Whois Arin

Domain Name Dispute Resolution
External Link  Domain Name Dispute Resolution Wipo External Link  WIPO Overview of WIPO Panel Views on Selected UDRP Questions (Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy and Rules) External Link  Search WIPO Cases and WIPO Panel Decisions External Link  Domain Name Dispute Resolution US National Arbitration Forum External Link  Disputes.org External Link  Online Dispute Resolution Services

Dynamic DNS
External Link  Dynamic DNS External Link  Dynamic DNS Linux/Unix4{~browsers browsers and servers

Browsers
External Link  w3m our top pick Console Browser Linux
External Link  w3m manual
External Link  w3m at Gnu External Link  Phoenix our top pick Browser External Link  Mozilla External Link  Netscape External Link  Opera External Link  other supported OSs External Link  Troll Tech External Link  Neoplanet External Link  Emissary Attachmate External Link  Project Mnemonic External Link  Star Office Browser (Linux) External Link  Browser Watch External Link  Spyglass "Enhanced Mosaic" External Link  Internet Explorer Microsoft

Web Servers
External Link  Apache our top pick External Link  Netscape External Link  Internet Information Server External Link  Microsoft External Link  Roxen
External Link  Apache Week(ly)
External Link  CNet Apache Guide External Link  Apache 1.3 user's guide
External Link  Apache Server Survival Guide External Link  Apache resource center UK Web
External Link  The Apache FAQ External Link  Webpedia Apache FAQ External Link  C2Net Secure Apache based server External Link  USA and Canada External Link  Elsewhere External Link  Apache SSL External Link  Enhydra Open Source External Link  WebSphere IBM External Link  Virtuoso External Link  Zope "the leading Open Source web application server. Zope enables teams to collaborate in the creation and management of dynamic web-based business applications such as intranets and portals. Zope makes it easy to build features such as site search, news, personalization, and e-commerce into your web applications."4{~protocols Protocols List TCP/IP
List MIME
List LDAP
List SOAP
List Authentication - Virtual Identities

TCP/IP

TCP/IP

MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

External Link  The MIME Information Page External Link  Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

External Link  OpenLDAP Open source implementation of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.
External Link  OpenLDAP Faq-O-Matic External Link  LDAP FAQ Critical Angle External Link  Cameron Laird's personal developer's perspective on LDAP External Link  LDAP: Use as Directed by Tim Howes (co-author of LDAP), Netscape External Link  A System Administrator's View of LDAP External Link  An LDAP Roadmap & FAQ External Link  PerLDAP: Source Code Release contact Leif Hedstrom, Mozilla External Link  PerLDAP Programmer's Guide External Link  PerlLDAP FAQ External Link  Perl LDAP Graham Barr Mail e-mail gbarr@pobox.com External Link  Directory Server: An LDAP PERL package for creating an interface to LDAP API on UNIX platforms External Link  Linux LDAP & SSL integration External Link  LDAP Mail e-mail ldap@umich.edu archive External Link  Introduction to the SLAPD and SLURPD Administrator's Guide

SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol

External Link  SOAP - Microsoft External Link  SOAP DevelopMentor External Link  SOAP Frequently Asked Questions External Link  Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) OASIS External Link  SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)

Authentication - Virtual Identities

External Link  The DotGNU Project
External Link  DotGNU Virtual Identities External Link  Liberty Alliance Project External Link  Passport, Hailstorm, .Net etc./electronic.commerce/toc.html4{! ../electronic.commerce/toc.html Electronic Commerce & Encryption4{! ../electronic.commerce/payments.html Online Payments4{! ../electronic.commerce/authentication.html Virtual Identities4{~markup Electronic Publishing & MarkupThis list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. List Design and Resource Bases
List Character Sets
List TeX & LaTeX
List HTML
List SGML
List XML
List XHTML
List PDF (Adobe)
List Yaml
List PHP - Hypertext Pre-processor
List HTML Special Characters
List UCS
List Unicode
List Image Technology
List Sound Technology
List Multimedia Technology
List Collaborative Publishing
Book title: "Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes & Bucks" Michael Lesk External Link  Source Bank Revolution9. Search tool for developers on the Internet containing over 5000 fully searchable and browsable resources to help help software professionals in their development tasks. (announced August 24, 1999)

Tex & LaTeX

External Link  The TeXbook External Link  LaTeX A document preparation system External Link  TeX Resources on the Web External Link  LaTeX: A Document Preparation System External Link  A (La)Tex encyclopaedia External Link  LaTeX Navigator External Link  LyX (LaTeX Editor) External Link  Primer Getting Started with LaTeX, David R. Wilkins External Link  LaTeX help External Link  LaTeX 2 HTML External Link  All About LaTeX2HTML Nikos Drakos External Link  teTeX External Link  teTeX 0.9 download External Link  Lyx External Link  IBM Tech Explorer Browser plug-in enabling viewing of LaTeX documents (MS IE; Netscape) External Link  Groff home pageFTP Groff download

Markup - Hypertext

Markup - Xanadu
External Link  Xanadu (developing Ted Nelson's original idea for hypertext) External Link  About xanadu

Markup - HTML
External Link  HTML 4.01 Specification W3C Recommendation 24 December 1999 (evolved development of Tim Berners Lee's hypertext markup for the www) (html and xml are subsets of sgml) External Link  NCSA's Beginner's Guide to HTML External Link  HTML Tutorial External Link  Character entity references in HTML 4 External Link  iso8859-1 table HTML Special Characters External Link  HTML 4.0 Reference Library (3Mb Download)

Markup - XHTML
External Link  XHTML The Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. A reformulation of HTML 4.0 in XML 1.0 by the External Link  W3C. Proposed Recommendation of 10 December 1999.

Markup - XML

External Link  W3 Org XML (html and xml are subsets of sgml) External Link  XSL - W3 Consortium External Link  W3 Consortium Working Draft External Link  SGML/XML Page Robin Cover OASIS XML Organisation for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards External Link  XML: Extensible Markup Language External Link  XML com External Link  XML Hack Developer News from the XML Community External Link  Frequently Asked Questions about the Extensible Markup Language External Link  XML FAQ External Link  XML Tree "The Leading Directory of XML Content on the Web" Monitoring Updates with XML External Link  XML News External Link  CPEX "Global standards for privacy-enabled customer data exchange" Coordinated effort of 21 consortium members to standardise the collection of customer data in XML. A coordinated effort to standardise XML tags and DTDs [Document Type Definitions], with regard to customer data, to ensure its interoperability and to prevent the fragmentation of XML. External Link  XML dot com External Link  XML & IBM Developer Works External Link  Featured XML resources Selected from developerWorks and IBM product sites

XML Vocabularies
External Link  Legal XML "mission to develop open non-proprietary technical standards for legal documents and related applications" External Link  XFDL Extensible Forms Description Language () External Link  RosettaNet Business to business information exchange using XML, UML and other common protocols External Link  IFX - Interactive Financial Exchange External Link  ebXML Breaking News! The UN and OASIS effort: "Creating a Single Global Electronic Market"
External Link  Monthly Archives for ebxml-awareness External Link  Electronic Business XML Initiative (ebXML) The XML Cover Pages External Link  XAML where is it then? External Link  XAML (Transaction Authority Markup Language) "vendor neutral that enables the coordination and processing of online transactions in the rapidly developing in the rapidly emerging world of XML web services" backed by Hewlet Packard, IBM, Oracle, and Sun. External Link  BizTalk Framework Microsoft External Link  XML Info Company External Link  List of XML Books External Link  Abortext XML Resources External Link  Abortext XSL Tutorial External Link  XML Schema Requirements External Link  XML and Databases by Ronald Bourret, Technical University of Darmstadt External Link  DocBook including the online text External Link  DocBook: The Definitive Guide by Norman Walsh & Leonard Muellner 1-56592-580-7 External Link  DocBook Install mini-HOWTO Robert B Easter

XML Software
External Link  XML Software External Link  SAX by its primary author David Megginson External Link  John Cowan's XML index External Link  XML::DOM CPAN Perl External Link  Free XML Software External Link  XML for All External Link  XML Authority XML authoring tool External Link  X Metal XML authoring tool External Link  FpML an XML-based markup language that allows for Net-based integration of services such as electronic trading and risk analysis backed by IBM, PricewaterhouseCoopers and J.P. Morgan. 18/06/1999 External Link  Electronic Commerce Modeling Language (ECML) Cover Pages External Link  ECML Electronic Commerce Modeling Language (ECML) is to be a universal format for wallets and merchant web sites. ECML uses a set of uniform field names to streamlines the process by which merchants collect electronic data for shipping, billing, and payment. Its development is a collaboration between: American Express, AOL, Compaq, CyberCash, IBM, MasterCard, Microsoft, SETCo, Sun Microsystems, Transactor Networks, Trintech, and Visa. 18/06/1999 External Link  Enhydra Open Source Java/XML Application Server

Markup - SGML

External Link  SGML Org External Link  SGML/XML Page Robin CoverFTP SGML ftp Oslo External Link  Softquad - Panorama - SGML browser External Link  SGML Tools External Link  SGML Tools - download

PDF - Adobe

External Link  PDF Portable Document Format Adobe External Link  Acrobat Reader External Link  Xpdflatex2pdf

Yaml - Yet Another Markup Language

External Link  Yaml - Yet Another Markup Language (structured data storage/ programming language independent data structures. Improved coding efficiency, little "markup" and simplified parsing, natural programming fit, (unlike XML? well more natural & efficient (in programming (& storage) terms) than XML anyway.))
External Link  Yaml list information
External Link  Yaml wiki
External Link  Most recent Yaml messages [Yaml core on Geocrawler] External Link  Yaml Maiing list External Link  Look Ma, No Tags Yaml Article at XML.com External Link  Yaml Reference Card External Link  Yaml Ain't Markup Language Yaml Spec. External Link  Yaml XML External Link  Yaml for Ruby
External Link  Yaml for Ruby Cookbook
External Link  Yaml for Ruby Documentation
External Link  Yaml for Ruby
External Link  Yaml for Ruby SourceForge External Link  Yaml.rb RAA entry (Ruby Application Archive) External Link  Yaml (oni etc) Toms Lib External Link  RubyYamlEmitter

Markup - PHP

See Segment  PHPSee also Segment  Zope

Design and Resource Bases

External Link  Web Designer's Paradise External Link  Use IT Alertbox column, Jakob Nielsen External Link  Webmaster Reference Library External Link  Web Mastery Guides to HTML External Link  Philip and Alex's Guide to Web Publishing by Philip Greenspun External Link  Intelliforum Beyond HTML: "a resource for web developers, covering concepts that extend beyond basic HTML development" "focus here is on how to further utilise [web related]... technologies to your advantage"See Segment  PHPand Segment  Zope External Link  WebDAV Resources "Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning". A set of extensions to the HTTP protocol which allows users to collaboratively edit and manage files on remote web servers.
External Link  WebDAV FAQ
External Link  Mod Dav (an Apache Dav module) External Link  OpenLDAP Open source implementation of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.
External Link  LDAP: Use as Directed by Tim Howes (co-author of LDAP), Netscape External Link  A System Administrator's View of LDAP External Link  An LDAP Roadmap & FAQ External Link  PerLDAP: Source Code Release contact Leif Hedstrom, Mozilla External Link  PerLDAP Programmer's Guide External Link  PerlLDAP FAQ External Link  Perl LDAP Graham Barr Mail e-mail gbarr@pobox.com External Link  Directory Server: An LDAP PERL package for creating an interface to LDAP API on UNIX platforms External Link  Linux LDAP & SSL integration External Link  LDAP Mail e-mail ldap@umich.edu archive External Link  Introduction to the SLAPD and SLURPD Administrator's Guide External Link  SOAP - Microsoft External Link  SOAP DevelopMentor External Link  SOAP Frequently Asked Questions External Link  Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) OASIS External Link  SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) External Link  Web Wisdom External Link  DevHead ZD Net External Link  CNet Web Builder External Link  Web Page Design for Designers

Character Sets

List HTML Special Characters
List UCS - Universal Character Set
List Unicode
External Link  Character Set Standards @ Diffuse

HTML Special Characters
External Link  HTML Document Representation External Link  Using Special Characters on Web Pages: Cross-Platform Considerations by Bob Baumel External Link  Special Characters in HTML "ISO Latin" and "HTML Entities" External Link  ¡Special HTML Characters! Otherwise known as iso8859-1 External Link  Special HTML ISO Standard ISO8859-1 Latin-1 Characters Codes External Link  HTML and Forms FAQ External Link  Special Characters Reference Web Monkey External Link  Character Set Standards @ Diffuse External Link  Guide to character sets @ Diffuse

UCS - Universal Character Set
External Link  The Universal Character Set (UCS) "the Universal Multi-octet Coded Character Set (UCS) specified in ISO/IEC 10646-1 For many applications of the UCS, the characters of the BMP are all that will be required. It would be very wasteful of resources if a 32-bit coding was imposed on applications that required only a subset that could be encoded in 16 bits." External Link  Subject: ISO 8859-1 National Character Set FAQ External Link  Roadmaps to the Universal Character Set This page indexes a number of real-size maps of ISO/IEC 10646 and Unicode

Unicode
External Link  The Unicode Standard Unicode home page
External Link  What is Unicode?
External Link  FAQ External Link  Unicode in the Unix Environment by Roman Czyborra External Link  Unicode and Multilingual Support in Web Browsers and HTML Alan Wood's Unicode Resources External Link  Unicode Transformation Formats: UTF-8 & Co.

Other character Sets
External Link  International register of coded character sets to be used with escape sequences

Image Technology

External Link  Portable Network Graphics External Link  Portable Network Graphics at W3 External Link  Multiple-image Network Graphics A PNG-like Image Format Supporting Multiple Images, Animation and Transparent JPEGs External Link  SVG - Scalable Vector Graphics Vector Graphics in XML - Animation External Link  Vector Graphics in XML - Animation W3C

Sound

Ogg Vorbis
External Link  Ogg Vorbis "fully Open, non-proprietary, patent-and-royalty-free, general purpose compressed audio format for high quality"
External Link  Ogg beats MP3 & The Rest In Listening Test Slashdot

MP3
External Link  MP3 .com External Link  MPeg3 software site External Link  MP3 Debate External Link  MP3 Box External Link  Excite on MP3 External Link  MP3 Encoder External Link  CD Copy External Link  Win Amp External Link  NullSoft

Interest Groups
External Link  Secure Digital Music Initiative Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI) will endorse no single format. "SDMI is trying to establish standards for hardware players. Beyond that they will develop standards for security and watermarking but it is unlikely it will recommend a single format External Link  Artist Direct

Multimedia

External Link  SMIL at the W3 Consortium External Link  Smil Links Web Developer External Link  SMIL at the XML Resource Guide External Link  Cult 3D External Link  Shockwave Macromedia

Collaborative (web) Publishing Tools/tech
External Link  TWikki "a flexible, powerful, and easy to use Web-based collaboration platform. Use TWiki to run a project development space, a document management system, a knowledge base, or any other groupware tool, on an intranet or on the internet. Web content can be created collaboratively by using just a browser" External Link    External Link  Zope "the leading Open Source web application server. Zope enables teams to collaborate in the creation and management of dynamic web-based business applications such as intranets and portals. Zope makes it easy to build features such as site search, news, personalization, and e-commerce into your web applications."4{! ../intellectual.property/toc.html Intellectual Property4{~open.society.memes Open Source - Fresh Memes in Information/Knowledge Sharing (a feast of the commons? / percolation?)This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. List Open Standards & Protocols / Interoperability
List Free Software Foundation
List Open Source Software
List Open Source & Education
List Groklaw
List Tangential News
List Books
List Sampling of open source related technologies & projects
List Other
Elsewhere off this site: TOC linked .html Intellectual Property Segment  alternative memes and Segment  Linux

Tangential News - primarily on Linux, may include some on "open source" generally
External Link  MIT to Make Nearly all course material available free on the World Wide Web "unprecedented step challenges the privatization of knowledge" MIT News - April 4 2001Linux: Corporate Interest External Link  Open season Glyn Moody says that Microsoft may rule desktop PCs today, but a serious rival is now on its way Thursday January 30, 2003 The Guardian External Link  Banks Want to Swim With Penguin By Michelle Delio 02:00 AM Feb. 03, 2003
"Linux is probably the only good news that we've had in the financial industry over the past couple of years," said Keith Codell, a systems administrator for a Wall Street firm. "Linux is reliable -- it never crashes, it's secure. Wouldn't it be sweet if the market was more like Linux?"
"The call for RMDS for Linux has been astounding," said Peter Lankford, head of real-time content-management systems for Reuters. "And the response from our beta testers, even those who initially dismissed Linux as 'experimental technology,' has been overwhelmingly positive.
"They saw performance improvements and cost savings. These folks are bankers, and they know you almost never get more for less -- but this time they did."
Reuters began beta testing RMDS for Linux in October. Lankford wouldn't reveal names, but said the RMDS beta was tested in six of the world's largest financial institutions.
"I have to admit I was shocked at the complete lack of negative feedback," Casey Merkey, global program manager for RMDS on Linux. "You always get negative feedback in beta tests."
Merkey said that even the customers who were not convinced they wanted to use a Linux system converted quickly once they started using it.
"Some of our more challenging customers suddenly became my very best friends," he said.
Financial industry heavyweights such as Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley, Credit Suisse First Boston, Goldman Sachs Group and E-Trade have all announced major Linux deployments in recent months. External Link  01/27/03; Vol. 17 No. 20 Disruptive technologies by Joab Jackson External Link  Developers turn to Linux 10:26 Tuesday 28th January 2003 Reuters Source: Reuters LinuxWorld: High prices and unreliable systems drive programmers to switch platforms from Windows to Linux, although Microsoft continues to dominate the desktop External Link  Reuters introduces Linux-based market data feeds Reuters, 02.03.03, 12:01 AM ET External Link  Rise of the 'Consumer' Linux Distribution LinuxPosted by michael on Wednesday February 05, 2003 External Link  Group Hopes to Give New Life to Desktop Linux By Thor Olavsrud 5 February 2003 External Link  Life looks good for Linux BBC 22 January, 2003 External Link  Could Linux dethrone the software king? By Richard Waters Published: January 21 2003, January 22 2003 edition External Link  Slashdot FT on Europe's Open Source Option "The Financial Times offers a very interesting read about Linux, its possibilities for business, and its threat to Microsoft. Also a second article about "Europe's open-source option"." External Link  Linux makes new PC waves, and profits Jim Cole January 17, 2003 External Link  Linux and the market's big geographic change External Link  Bank's faith in Linux pays dividends (Communications /Network infrastructure /) External Link  More foreign banks switching to Linux External Link  EL Today: Massive CSFB Trading Architecture Now Powered by Red Hat External Link  Wall Street Embraces Linux (Forbes) External Link  FT (& American Banker) Why Linux made inroads at Financial Institutions (FT) External Link  "Why I feel Linux will fundamentally change the Information Technology Industry" IBM 2000 Annual Report
External Link  Linux for IBM FAQ External Link  Linux waddles from obscurity to the big time Momentum builds as upstart operating system proves it can compute (USA Today August 2002) External Link  Larry Ellison: Oracle Betting On Linux By Dan Orzech December 20, 2002: Oracle is seeing a huge trend towards Linux, says the company's CEO, and is pitching its new database clustering technology as the ideal way to take advantage of the open source operating system and low-cost Intel hardware. Move aside, IBM. Oracle is jumping on the Linux bandwagon. External Link  IDC: Linux Becoming Entrenched in Capital Markets By Thor Olavsrud Linux is well on its way to becoming entrenched in capital markets, with leading edge firms turning to the platform for mission-critical applications, according to a new report by IDC Financial Services (the fruit of IDC's acquisition of Meridien Research). December 19, 2002 External Link  Free Linux operating system wins some big-name fans By Kim Peterson Seattle Times technology reporter December 23, 2002 External Link  Microsoft should 'fear the Penguin' By Robert Jaques [10-01-2003] Goldman Sachs spells out a stark warning to Redmond - "Microsoft should "fear the Penguin" as Linux moves into the heart of corporate IT infrastructures, according to Goldman Sachs...The investment bank is optimistic about the future of the open source operating system in its Fear the Penguin study." External Link  Wall St. leans toward Linux By LUCAS MEARIAN OCTOBER 21, 2002 Source: Computerworld With a handful of key Wall Street brokerage firms acting as icebreakers, Linux is quickly gaining ground on Unix and Windows as a mission-critical operating system within the securities industry. The attractions: its flexibility across systems and the savings it yields through the use of commodity hardware. "The list of people in the queue who are saying 'When I have a new project, I'm going to use Linux' is larger than we can handle," said Rick Carey, chief technology architect at Merrill Lynch & Co. in New York. "I'd say it will be significant over the next year. A majority of new projects are interested in Linux." External Link  Feature: Counting on Linux By jack mccarthy 9 January, 2003 8:02 san francisco, U.S. "At financial services giant Merrill Lynch & Co. Inc., CTO John McKinley is blazing a trail to boost productivity and enhance ROI with his strategy. And that trail has led him to pursue a company-wide deployment of Linux open-source software. McKinley says Linux is ready for prime time and set to take on increasing responsibility in the datacenter. "The speed of the evolution of the Linux story has surprised even me," he says... CTOs of major enterprises such as Merrill Lynch, which claimed US$21.8 billion in revenue in 2001, are adopting Linux in increasing numbers and scale. These chief technologists, spurred by the new reality of leaner, meaner IT budgets, cite savings in hardware and software costs as well as benefits of the operating system's stability and scalability. A 2002 Forrester Research Inc. survey found that of 286 IT decision-makers, 28 percent plan to use Linux for enterprise application servers in 2003 and 31 percent plan to use Linux for Web servers. Chief technologists are reporting favorable results, experts say. They say doubts about Linux are gradually disappearing as the OS gains acceptance and support from big-name vendors such as IBM Corp. and Hewlett-Packard Co. " External Link  Nimble edge slowly erodes for Microsoft January 13, 2003Linux: Cost Savings + Superior Technology External Link  Slashdot | Amazon: Linux Saved Us Millions External Link  Amazon saves millions with Linux switch - Tech News - CNET.com External Link  Google's Linux (not so) Secret External Link  Google's open-source secrets External Link  Google Web Directory - Computers > Open Source > Advocacy External Link  MS paper touts Unix in Hotmail's Win2k switch By Thomas C Greene in Washington Posted: 21/11/2002 External Link  Intel's Linux use saved $200 million in two years - Inside Intel's IT department External Link  Linux project gives schools networks at fraction of Windows cost External Link  Feature: Linux a cheaper choice External Link  Samba Runs Rings around Windows 2000 "Connecting" Linux to Windows (estimated 100% better performance, 4 times the scalability) External Link  SGI Demos 64-Proc Linux BoxLinux: Database External Link  Turbolinux 7 Server and IBM DB2 set performance recordLinux: Super Computing External Link  IBM: Linux is the 'logical successor' The day is approaching when Linux will likely replace IBM's version of Unix, says the company's top software executive. February 03, 2003 External Link  IBM throwing its weight behind Linux By Stephen Shankland Special to ZDNet News January 29, 2003 NEW YORK--The day is approaching when Linux will likely replace IBM's version of Unix, the company's top software executive said, an indication that the upstart operating system's stature is rising within Big Blue. External Link  Linux to enter supercomputing top five External Link  Implications of Linux supercomputers for AMD, Intel External Link  $24.5 Million Linux Supercomputer by HP External Link  HP to build Linux supercomputer - Hewlett-Packard announced a high-profile contract Tuesday to build a Linux-powered supercomputer for the U.S. Department of Energy. External Link  HP creates off-the-shelf (top 500) supercomputer External Link  Slashdot story External Link  Linux Supercomputer Howls by IBM External Link  Linux clusters scale better and cost less 12:43 Monday 4th November 2002 Grant Gross Linux clusters can scale better than supercomputers, and have good administrations tools. Plus -- they are much cheaper External Link  Linux Scales New Heights Ideas 2003 CIO Magazine Jan 1 2003 External Link  top 500 supercomputersGovernment Interest External Link  India gives thumbs up to Linux By Nick Farrell [02-01-2003] External Link  Indian Government Moves to Let Linux In Linux BusinessPosted by CowboyNeal on Thursday December 26, 2002 Webi writes "The government of India has started taking precise, wide-reaching steps to usher in a Linux wave in India." India sure seems to be a highly contested arena lately. Interestingly, India's plan calls for government-sponsored support and call centers. Looks like they've really thought this through. External Link  Govt move on to let in Linux PRASENJIT BHATTACHARYA TIMES NEWS NETWORK[ WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 25, 2002 12:54:49 PM ] External Link  Linux and the market's big geographic change External Link  European Union IDA Study On Open Source Software "Study into the use of open source software in the public sector" (September 2001) External Link  Free/Libre and Open Source Software: Survey and Study Institute of Infonomics at the University of Maastricht, Netherlands (July 2002)
External Link  Governments should switch to open source - study
External Link  EU Report Advocates Pooling Open Source Software Slashdot
External Link  The Linux developer lifestyle, exposed External Link  German gov deal offers Linux great leap forward in Europe External Link  US Navy using Linux External Link  Norwegian Statskonsult Endorses Linux/Open Source Software for the Public Sector (August 2001, English Translation, pdf)
External Link  Rapport 2001:7 Åpen programvare - "anvendelighetene av Linux og annen åpen programvare i statlig forvaltning" External Link  Norway snubs Microsoft also External Link  Norway says No Way to Microsoft External Link  Germany likes Linux by John Blau, October 30, 2002 External Link  Open source seeks growth in government market By Gretel Johnston October 30, 2002 External Link  New Zealand Open letter "consider an official position favouring 'open source' software (OSS) for computing in the government and in business." ... "Countries like Mexico, Brazil, France, and China are already considering legislation to favour OSS deployment in government institutions, schools, and in business." External Link  Venezuela's Government Shifts to Open Source Software (August 2002)
External Link  Venezuela Goes Open Source Slashdot External Link  MS in Peruvian Open Source Nightmare off The Register and including link to External Link  "the original letter" (in Spanish) and External Link  "the FUD letter from Microsoft" (in Spanish) External Link  Another copy of the letter in answer to MS (which including some of the Merits of Open Source) DR. Edgar David Villanueva Nuñez, Congressman of the Republica of Perú. http://slashdot.org/articles/02/05/04/220237.shtml?tid=117 Slashdot: Free Software Law in Peruvian Congress External Link  Project Ägypten (Free Software Sphinx-Clients) German Government funds secure mail project, potentially saving its businesses and tax paying populace £$ millions - and potentially those of other nations as well (a feast of the commons?). "The Sphinx project launched by German authorities aims to improve secure email exchange... Proprietary products are already on the way, but with the project Ägypten there is now also a Free Software solution going to be realized for popular mail user agents (sphinx-enabling KMail and mutt are essential goals)." External Link  Interface: The Penguin catches on in the Middle East Linux is emerging as a viable alternative operating system for businesses all over the world External Link  City saves with Linux, thin clients - The sun is shining on Linux in the Florida Panhandle. At a time when Microsoft Windows dominates the corporate desktop, the City of Largo has chosen Linux. External Link  Governments - Philippines, Denmark, Eastern Europe Linux? External Link  UK Government backs open source External Link  U.K. government backs open source External Link  UK unveils Open Source policy, may make it 'default' option External Link  Exploiting [irreprable!] design flaws in the Win32 API for privilege escalation. External Link  Slashdot (Shattering Windows)General Interest External Link  Is Linux poised to topple Microsoft? CNN September 4, 2002 External Link  Survey: Linux growing
External Link  Linux Replacing Windows More Than Unix Slashdot External Link  Are the Floodgates Opening on Microsoft?Open Infrastructure External Link  HP to W3C: We Support Royalty-Free Standards for the Web Infrastructure Oct 4, 2001 External Link  Learning to Love the Penguin "I set out to use nothing but Linux for a month. Cold turkey." Geoff Palmer, New Zealand, Monday, 1 October, 2001 External Link    External Link  PHP Overtakes Microsoft's ASP as Web's #1 Server- side Scripting LanguageWho is hostile? External Link  Lead Windows developer bugged by security External Link  MS 'Software Choice' scheme a clever fraud By Bruce Perens External Link  What Gates' attacks on the GPL really mean - Richard Stallman External Link  Microsoft Attacks Free Software Developers with New License External Link  MS disappears claim that Windows is legal requirement External Link  Crashing computers cost U.K. billions (needless to say this one is about someone else's computers/software/OS) External Link  'Think Tank' Issues Microsoft-Funded Troll as reported/commented-upon on Slashdot External Link  Initiative for Software Choice " a global initiative promoting neutral government procurement, standards and public R&D policies for software!"
External Link  Linux battle becomes political BBC
External Link  MS leads lobby against open source ZD Net

Technology & "Freedom"
External Link  Electronic Frontier Foundation

Free Software Foundation
External Link  Free Software Foundation "all information should be shared" External Link  FSF - Free Software Foundation "The Free Software Foundation (FSF), founded in 1985, is dedicated to promoting computer users' right to use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. The FSF promotes the development and use of free (as in freedom) software - particularly the GNU operating system(used widely today in its GNU/Linux variant)--- and free (as in freedom) documentation. The FSF also helps to spread awareness of the ethical and political issues of freedom in the use of software." External Link  FSF Europe - Free Software Foundation Europe External Link  GNU's Not Unix! "The GNU Project was launched in 1984 to develop a complete Unix-like operating system which is free software: the GNU system.(GNU is a recursive acronym for `GNU's Not Unix'; it is pronounced 'guh-NEW'.)" External Link  Philosophy of the GNU Project External Link  Free Software LicensesThe Gnu Public Licence - GPL provides the following freedoms subject to the conditions that may be summarised as follows (This is a RA summary of the GPL (2002w17) and has not been approved by the FSF (Free Software Foundation)):
1. On condition that any distribution you make of:
(a) this software; and or
(b) any modified versions of this software
shall be subject to the GPL [under the (same conditions as the) GPL] you are:
i. free to copy this software;
ii. free to view the source code of this software;
iii. free to add to or otherwise modify the source code of this software;
iv. free to distribute this software and any chages you make to this software;
v. free to charge for the software you distribute (whether with or without modification).
2. In exchange for the freedoms (1 i to v) outlined above, you agree under the GPL (1 (a) and (b)) that all the GPL freedoms shall remain present in any modification or distribution of this software.
To Reiterate: the condition for the freedoms granted under this license (the GPL, [summarised above]) is the provision (making available) of the source code for any modificaton or distribution you make under the same license (i.e. under the GPL).
GPL software shall remain GPL as summarised above.Opinion: This is the licence that guarantees protection the (core or heart of the) Software Commons and is in my opinion External Link  Richard Stallman's single greatest contribution, (under which much wonderful code has been produced and is protected. The power of Linux development is not so necessarily tied to Gnu as it is the GPL! - thank you Stallman, thank you Torvalds and all who have contributed to GPL software development).
External Link  GNU General Public License (GPL/ Copyleft)
External Link  GNU Lesser General Public License
External Link  GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) External Link  Richard Stallman's Personal Home Page External Link  Don't fear the GPL

Open Source
External Link  Open Sources : Voices from the Open Source Revolution 1st Edition January 1999, O'Reilly & Associates The Open Source Story External Link  Open Source Initiative (OSI) "a non-profit corporation dedicated to managing and promoting the Open Source Definition for the good of the community, specifically through the OSI Certified Open Source Software certification mark and program."
External Link  The Open Source Definition opensource.org
External Link  The Open Source Definition External Link  Authoritative version
Bruce Perens wrote the first draft of this document as "The Debian Free Software Guidelines", and refined it using the comments of the Debian developers in a month-long e- mail conference in June, 1997. He removed the Debian-specific references from the document to create the "Open Source Definition."
External Link  Open Source Project Site hosted by VA Linux
External Link  OSI approved Licenses at Sourceforge.net External Link  League for Programming Freedom "The League for Programming Freedom is an organization that opposes software patents and user interface copyrights." External Link  Open Source Writers Group
"Involve users worldwide in software creation as allowing them to contribute to the ongoing process of improving the software they use, results in more useful, better designed, and more robust creations." Eric Raymond*
External Link  Open Source IT External Link  OSI - Open Source Inc External Link  Salon's Free Software Project External Link  Online Linux Story Andrew Leonard External Link  SalonMagazine - Open Source External Link  PC Magazine - Open Source External Link  OReilly - Open Source External Link  Open Code External Link  Berkman Center for Internet and Society External Link  The Power of Open Code External Link  SourceXchange O'Reilly & HP External Link  Open Source's - Eric Steven Raymond External Link  projects External Link  random writings External Link  Bruce Perens Personal Home Page (now with HP) External Link  Center for the Public Domain

Open Standards & Protocols / Interoperability
External Link  The Open Group sponsored by Compaq, Fujutsu, Hewlett-Packard, Hitachi, Hitachi Siemens, IBM, Motorola, Sun External Link  IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force External Link  Open p2p O'Reilly External Link  Standards Organisations (not all of them open standards bodies) External Link  W3C - World Wide Web Consortium questionable - flirting with dubious ideas (contemplating a false turn) External Link  OASIS - Organisation for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards External Link  Internet Society External Link  Linux Standard Base "Standardizing the Penguin" of the External Link  Free Standards Group

Groups Against Software Patents
External Link  League for Programming Freedom External Link  Against Software Patents February 28, 1991 "The League for Programming Freedom is an organization that opposes software patents and user interface copyrights" External Link  Free Patents Organisation "Protecting Innovation & Competition in the IT Industry - Protect business and liberty from software patents" Europe

Education
External Link  Simple End User Linux a volunteer project currently focussing on Linux in Education, Linux in Science and Advocacy Documents External Link  Open Source Education Foundation "Superior technology in and for schools - enhancing technology for K12 Education" External Link  Why should open source software be used in schools? *** External Link  Nations Uniting for Open Source External Link  Nations Uniting for Open Source (supplement) External Link  EU Software Patent Hearing Report is Online External Link  Linux in the schools External Link  Learning to Love the Penguin I set out to use nothing but Linux for a month. Cold turkey. Geoff Palmer, New Zealand, Monday, 1 October, 2001 External Link    External Link  koha, the first open source integrated library system

Groklaw
External Link  Groklaw

OSS Technology Sampling
External Link  Open Source Advocacy @ Google External Link  Open Source Advocacy @ DmozSegment  Linux External Link  Linux @ Google External Link  Linux @ Dmoz External Link  Google also see External Link  Google Advanced Search and External Link  Google Directory and External Link  Google Advanced NewsGroups Search
Google is built largely upon
External Link  open source technologies such as Linux, Perl and Python External Link  Dmoz Open Directory External Link  GPG - The GNU Privacy Guard (Open PGP) External Link  The DotGNU Project
External Link  DotGNU Virtual Identities External Link  Open ssh (Secure shell) - secure remote computing External Link  VNC - Virtual Network Computing remote computer desktop access over a wide variety of architectures.
External Link  Virtual Network Computing using ssh External Link  Samba file sharing between linux and windows External Link  Apache External Link  TWikki "a flexible, powerful, and easy to use Web-based collaboration platform. Use TWiki to run a project development space, a document management system, a knowledge base, or any other groupware tool, on an intranet or on the internet. Web content can be created collaboratively by using just a browser" External Link    External Link  Zope "the leading Open Source web application server. Zope enables teams to collaborate in the creation and management of dynamic web-based business applications such as intranets and portals. Zope makes it easy to build features such as site search, news, personalization, and e-commerce into your web applications." External Link  DocBook External Link  Nupedia "We are building the world's largest international, peer-reviewed encyclopedia." (check) External Link  Wikipedia "a collaborative project to produce a complete encyclopedia from scratch" External Link  OpenOffice "an Open Source community project building the next generation of office-productivity software. Sponsored by Sun Microsystems, Inc., and hosted by CollabNet, Inc., OpenOffice.org provides the full infrastructure for global, Open Source community work and growth."
External Link  StarOffice cross-platform office suite by Sun. Watch out for version 6.0 first quarter 2002 External Link  AbiWord seamlessly cross-platform, Open Source Word Processor by AbiSource External Link  GNOME Office - AbiWord External Link  KOffice a free, integrated office suite by External Link  KDE (K Desktop Environment) for and Linux/Unix External Link  Gnome desktop environment External Link  Window Maker an X11 window manager External Link  Classic themes dot org External Link  themes dot org External Link  PostgreSQL External Link  MySQL External Link  MySQL dot com External Link  PostgreSQL "is a sophisticated Object-Relational DBMS, supporting almost all SQL constructs, including subselects, transactions, and user-defined types and functions. It is the most advanced open-source database available anywhere." External Link  Perl programming language External Link  Python programming language External Link  Ruby programming language External Link  HP creates off-the-shelf supercomputer External Link  slashdot External Link  Ogg Vorbis "fully Open, non-proprietary, patent-and-royalty-free, general purpose compressed audio format for high quality"
External Link  Ogg beats MP3 & The Rest In Listening Test Slashdot

Books
External Link  Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution (online) (1st Edition January 1999)
External Link  @amazon: Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution (O'Reilly Open Source) External Link  Free as in Freedom - Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software by Sam Williams (2002) External Link  Linux Story Online by Andrew Leonard External Link  The Cathedral & the Bazaar - Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary Eric S. Raymond @ tuxedo.org
External Link  @oreilly: The Cathedral & the Bazaar (paperback) - Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary by Eric S. Raymond (2nd Ed. 2001)
External Link  @amazon: The Cathedral and the Bazaar : Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary by Eric S. Raymond, Bob Young (2001) External Link  Free for All: How LINUX and the Free Software Movement Undercut the High-Tech Titans by Peter Wayner (2000) External Link  @amazon External Link  @amazon: Open Source: The Unauthorized White Papers by Donald K. Rosenberg (2000) External Link  @amazon: Rebel Code: Linux and the Open Source Revolution by Glyn Moody (2001) External Link  @amazon: Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace by Lawrence Lessig (2000)

Other
External Link  "Information on Microsoft's 'Shared Source' Lincensing" by Bernhard Rosenkraenzer External Link  Open Group a vendor and technology-neutral consortium committed to delivering greater business efficiency by bringing together buyers and suppliers of information technology to lower the time, cost and risk associated with integrating new technology across the enterprise.
"The Open Group's Mission is to offer all organizations concerned with open information infrastructures a new forum where we can share knowledge, integrate open initiatives and certify approved products and processes in a manner in a manner in which they continue to trust our impartiality"
4{~os OSs External Link  AtheOS AtheOS is a free desktop operating system under the GPL license.
External Link  AtheOS @Sourceforge
External Link  AtheOS on Google External Link  BeOS
External Link  Free BeOS
External Link  About.com on BeOS
External Link  BeOS software
External Link  BeOS MailinglistsSegment  Linux
#unix UNIX like
Mac OS External Link  Apple
External Link  Mac OS X
#unix UNIX based
Microsoft External Link  XP Microsoft Windows XP
External Link  The Infrastructure Forum "and corporate IT forum for European Orgainisations"
External Link  Interix - Running Unix and Linux applications on NT External Link  PetrOS by Trumpet Software OS claims to run NT and Windows software off a 100K kernel, not an MS product.Elsewhere off this site: Segment  PC News Links

UNIX

Also see Segment  Linux External Link  BSDI External Link  Free BSD External Link  Zine External Link  Net BSD External Link  Open BSD External Link  Pico BSD External Link  Sun Solaris (commercial, free for non-commercial use)

UNIX History
External Link  Unix History Chart External Link  Unix History Graphing Project External Link  Computer Languages Chart External Link  UNIX History4{~linux OS - Linux our top pickLinux for hearts and minds our top pickThis list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. List Organizations and Interest Groups
List Pointers
List Linux Distributions
List Secure Linux Distributions
List Linux Encryption
Segment  Linux Security List GUIs, Window Managers and Desktop Environments
List Shells
List Journaled and other advanced File Systems
List Linux Resources including Documentation
List Linux Software Sites
List Browsers
List Editors
List Office Suites - word processing & spreadsheets
List Word Processing
List Spreadsheets
List Databases
List Accountancy and Enterprise Management Software
List Remote Computing
List Revision Control (Development)
List Other Software
List With Windows
Elsewhere off this site: Segment  Fresh Memes in Software Development Segment  Linux News LinksSegment  Scripting and Development Languages Segment  Backup & Versioning

Organizations Interest Groups
External Link  Linux International "a non-profit association of groups, corporations and others that work towards the promotion of growth of the Linux operating system and the Linux community. External Link  Linux Standard Base "Standardizing the Penguin" of the External Link  Free Standards Group External Link  The Linux Documentation Project External Link  Documents The Linux Documentation Projet External Link  Computer Manuals - Linux External Link  Linux (a homepage) External Link  Linux headquarters External Link  LinuxNow! External Link  Linux Center and links to External Link  Journals and Gazettes External Link  Linux UK External Link  Linux Org UK External Link  Euro Linux External Link  Linux Certification Org External Link  Linux/ Open Source Channel at Internet dot comSegment  Relevant Memes in Linux Software Development

Pointers
External Link  Linux @ Google External Link  Linux @ Dmoz External Link  Open Source Advocacy @ Google External Link  Open Source Advocacy @ Dmoz

Kernel
External Link  Linux Kernel Archives

Linux Distributions
External Link  Linux Distributions DistroWatch External Link  Linux Distributions Linux HQ External Link  Linux Distributions Linux Online External Link  Linux Standard Base "Standardizing the Penguin" of the External Link  Free Standards Group External Link  Debian GNU/Linux our top pick our top pick
One of the more difficult distros to install; but such a joy to maintain and update that it more than makes up for this. Developers choice. our top pick
It is also worth knowing about the External Link  Debian Social Contract
External Link  Debian Social Contract
External Link  Debian Documentation
External Link  Debian FAQ
External Link  Search Debian Packages
External Link  Search Debian
External Link  weekly news
External Link  Learning Debian GNU/Linux by Bill McCarty 1st Edition September 1999 (full text on-line) 1-56592-705-2, O'Reilly, Order Number: 7052
External Link  The Linux Cookbook by Michael Stutz
External Link  Apt-rpm Questions and Answers
External Link  OpenOffice in Debian External Link  Linux - Gentoo our top pick External Link  Libranet Debian based commercial distro
External Link  Libranet External Link  Linux - Mandrake our top pick External Link  Linux - Red Hat
External Link  Unofficial Red Hat FAQ External Link  Linux - Slackware
External Link  Documentation External Link  Linux - SuSE our top pick External Link  US External Link  SourceForge Open Source Project Site hosted by External Link  VA Linux External Link  Gnu/Savannah Development Projects External Link  Yellowdog Linux for Apple PPC & G series & IBM RS/6000 External Link  Cygnus - GNUPro Toolkit External Link  Linux Kernel Archives External Link  IAG External Link  Free Standards Group Linux Internationalization Initiative

Secure Linux Distributions - Distributions which default to achieve a secure installation of Linux
See also Segment  Encrypted FileSystems for Linux External Link  NSA - Security Enhanced Linux National Security Agency External Link  EnGarde Secure Linux External Link  RSBAC - Rule Set Based Access Control for Linux External Link  Castle (RSBAC) External Link  Immunix External Link  SuSE
External Link  SuSE Security Announcements External Link    External Link  Linux - Mandrake high security default installation option in Mandrake 7.0 onwards External Link  kha0S Linux External Link  Bastille Linux External Link  EnGarde Secure Linux External Link  Security-Enhanced Linux

Linux Encryption
See also Segment  Linux Encryption Solutions External Link  GPG - The GNU Privacy Guard (Open PGP) External Link  Project Ägypten (Free Software Sphinx-Clients) for Linux "The Sphinx project launched by German authorities aims to improve secure email exchange... Proprietary products are already on the way, but with the project Ägypten there is now also a Free Software solution going to be realized for popular mail user agents (sphinx-enabling KMail and mutt are essential goals)." External Link  The Linux Encryption-HOWTO Homepage External Link  Linux Encryption HOWTO by Marc Mutz
External Link  Encrypting Disks External Link  Encrypting your Disks with Linux Doobee. R. Tzeck External Link  Encrypting Disks (Linux) HowTo External Link  PPDD requires recompiling (patching) the Linux kernel to allow strong encryption and a special device. Good documentation. External Link  TCFS involves the running of a daemon which exports an encrypted filesystem as an NFS share. External Link  Crypto Kernel Patch a patch for any given Linux kernel to make the loopback device use encryption algorithms.

Security
External Link  Linux Security (.com)
External Link  comp.os.linux.security FAQ by Daniel Swan
External Link  Linux Security HOWTO by Kevin Fenzi & Dave Wreski
External Link  Linux Security Resources External Link  Linux Security on Google

Shells
External Link  Bash Bourne again shell, Linux standard External Link  Zsh our top pick External Link  Zsh External Link  Zsh Manual External Link  Zsh Guide External Link  Zsh (SourceForge)

Multiplexing Consoles
External Link  SCREEN - the terminal multiplexer External Link  Screen at FSF External Link  Twin External Link  Twin at FSF

GUIs Windows Managers and Desktop Environments
External Link  Window Managers for X External Link  X Window Managers External Link  Themes . org External Link  Themes External Link  E n l i g h t e n m e n t our top pick External Link  Rasterman (Carsten Haitzler)
External Link  E
External Link  Enlightenment - it's time to rethink everything
External Link  Enlightenment themes External Link  Fluxbox our top pick a minimalistic window manager with tabbing & grouping
External Link  Fluxbox
External Link  Blackbox on which Fuxbox is based External Link  Gnome desktop environment External Link  Ion our top pick our top pick - Search for a graphical usable interface not for everyone, but my pick External Link  KDE (K Desktop Environment)
External Link  K Develop External Link  Sawfish External Link  + External Link  Window Maker External Link  GnuStep
External Link  Simply GnuStep External Link  Classic themes dot org External Link  themes dot org External Link  UMENU - Universal Menu External Link  download

Journaled and other advanced File Systems for Linux
FTP Ext3fs (Ext2 with metadata journalling (and completely reversible)). External Link  JFS Journaled File System Technology for Linux, IBM. Data+metadata journalling External Link  ReiserFS our top pick our top pick Metadata journalling + filesystem in B-trees (enhance access speeds), (uses a hashing algorithm to sort the files). External Link  XFS our top pick SGI External Link  + "A high-performance journaling file system" data+metadata journalling External Link  SGI's 64-bit journaled file system, an "SGI crown jewel achievement" External Link  Tux2 phase-tree filesystem. by Daniel Phillips.
(phase tree superior to journalling? - provides guarantee of consistent filesystem (as data+metadata journalling), without the performance hit).

Linux Resources including Documentation
External Link  LDP - Linux Documentation Project External Link  x External Link  Linux Open Book External Link  Linux Online - About the Linux Operating System External Link  Linux Frequently Asked Questions with Answers External Link  Linux from Scratch Installing Linux from scratch External Link  "The Ultimate Guide On Linux For Beginners" External Link  Linux ProgrammingRecommended text to buy:
External Link  Running Linux Matt Welsh, Matthias Kalle Dalheimer & Lars Kaufman 3rd Edition, 1999 O'Reillysee also the free online:
External Link  Learning Debian GNU/Linux By Bill McCarty 1st Edition September 1999 (full text on-line) 1-56592-705-2, O'Reilly, Order Number: 7052 External Link  Linux Hardware Database External Link  Geocrawler Linux e-mails, "Knowledge Archive" External Link  New Linux Users Michael Burns (focus on Red Hat) External Link  Google Linux Search External Link  Google Linux Directory External Link  Linux Support Services External Link  Linux Links External Link  Just Linux portal - a complete guide to the Linux community External Link  Generic Linux Links Emuse External Link  The Linux Webring External Link  Linux on Laptops laptop support by Kenneth E. Harker Mail e-mail kharker@cs.utexas.edu External Link  Advanced Horizons Linux Page External Link  UNIX is a four letter word Christopher C. Taylor External Link  Linux Primer External Link  Mindspring - Linux Links External Link  Linux Lynx External Link  Linux Information Page External Link  Linux Help Online External Link  Linux Start the External Link  Linux Support Line and the External Link  Linux Newbie Project External Link  Linux Newbie Information FAQs External Link  The Linux Newbie Administrator Guide External Link  LAME - Linux Administration Made Easy by Steve Frampton External Link  Linux Newbie Guide External Link  Linux Commands External Link  Linux FAQ External Link  Global Linux External Link  Linux World Night Hawk External Link  Linux Raw Power External Link  Contents External Link  Linux Power Org Question and Answer Archives External Link  Linux Today External Link  Linux Weekly News External Link  Linux Journal External Link  Linux Lounge - Ziff Davis UK External Link  Linux for Business Users - Ziff Davis External Link  Linux - Ziff Davis External Link  Smart Resallers online Linux - Ziff Davis External Link  SlashDot External Link  FreshMeat External Link  Linux OSonline

Linux Software Sites
External Link  LinuxApps External Link  Linux Software External Link  Freshmeat External Link  Debian a free/open distribution and massive resource

Some Specific Software
External Link  The Gimp by SSC and edited by Michael J. Hammel External Link  Samba - file services External Link  Gnu SQL External Link  OpenLDAP Open source implementation of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. External Link  Predawnia chat and Linux resource

Linux Browsers
External Link  Galeon External Link  Konqueror External Link  Mozilla External Link  Netscape External Link  Opera
External Link  Opera for Linux

Viewing PDF
External Link  Acrobat Reader External Link  GhostView® & GSview External Link  Xpdf

Editors
External Link  VIM (vi improved) not for everyone - but my pick our top pick
External Link  Vim Tips
External Link  Vim Tips Search
External Link  Vim New Riders book External Link  Vim Cookbook by Steve Oualline
External Link  Vim Sourceforge
External Link  Vim Sourceforge Download
External Link  Vim Documentation External Link   
External Link  Vim Documentation
External Link  Vim Manual
External Link  Vim HowTo
External Link  Vim Help
External Link  Vim Tips
External Link  Vim Scripts
External Link  Vim Messages External Link  Gnu Emacs External Link  XEmacs External Link  Nedit (all purpose editor - programming, web... - for Linux) External Link  SciTE External Link  Scintilla External Link  documentation External Link  Bluefish HTML editor External Link  Open Source Editors Google Directory External Link  Linux Editors Google Directory External Link  Code Crusader (code development environment - for UNIX)

Office Suites (integrated - word processors, spreadsheets, databases etc)
External Link  Applix (Linux) External Link  Applix Office External Link  Applix Linux site External Link  Hancom Office External Link  KOffice a free, integrated office suite by External Link  KDE (K Desktop Environment) for and Linux/Unix
External Link  KOffice FAQa free, integrated office suite by External Link  KDE (K Desktop Environment) External Link  Gnome Office External Link  OpenOffice
External Link  Projects OpenOffice
"an Open Source community project building the next generation of office-productivity software. Sponsored by Sun Microsystems, Inc., and hosted by CollabNet, Inc., OpenOffice.org provides the full infrastructure for global, Open Source community work and growth."
External Link  Star Office External Link    Sun
External Link  StarOffice Sun External Link  ThinkFree Office External Link  AbiWord seamlessly cross-platform, Open Source Word Processor by AbiSource External Link  GNOME Office - AbiWord

Word Processors
List See Office Suites
External Link  AbiWord seamlessly cross-platform, Open Source Word Processor by AbiSource

Spreadsheets
List See Office Suites
External Link  GnuMeric External Link    External Link    External Link  KSpread

Databases
External Link  PostgreSQL External Link  MySQL External Link  MySQL dot com External Link  SAP on Linux External Link  DB2 for Linux IBM
External Link  DB2 Linux HowtoSee TOC linked .html Databases in Data Management, Search Engine Developers and Linux Databases

Accountancy & Enterprise Management

External Link  Nola Software "accounting, inventory, point of sale, contact management, billing, purchasing, and reporting all in one integrated package" & with "Rock solid stability" (uses Apache & MySQL) license GPL External Link  SQL-Ledger Accounting "a multiuser, double entry, accounting system written in Perl. Data is stored in a SQL server, display and data entry is through a GUI or text based browser." license GPL External Link  WyattERP - Enterprise Resource Planning "from contact management to sales/orders, fulfillment to shipping, invoicing to accounting, from vendor management to purchase orders, receiving to inventory, human resources to payroll, in one fully integrated solution." license OPL (Open Public License) External Link  mySAP External Link  GnuCash (Personal) Accounting Software for Linux External Link  Accounting at LinuxLinks

Graphics Editors
External Link  The Gimp

Scanning & OCR

External Link  The SANE project Scanning software (Linux)

Remote Computing

External Link  VNC - Virtual Network Computing External Link  OpenSSH

Firewalls

External Link  Shorewall our top pick External Link  Firewall Builder

Windows issues
External Link  Samba - file services External Link  Wine "a free replacement of Windows for Unix" External Link  Win4Lin External Link  NeTraverse "Run Windows out of a box" External Link  Plex86 - OS Freedom of Choice! External Link  VMware - OS Freedom of Choice!4{~languages Programming - Scripting and Development LanguagesThis list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. List Overviews of Programming Languages - Language Lists & Links
List Object Oriented Programming Language Lists & Links
List Ruby our top pick
List Parrot
List Perl
List Python
List PHP
List Expect
List Yaml (included here for convenience)
List Other Languages
List Books
External Link  Source Bank Revolution9. Search tool for developers on the Internet containing over 5000 fully searchable and browsable resources to help help software professionals in their development tasks. (announced August 24, 1999)

Overviews of Programming Languages
External Link  DMOZ Programming Languages, Open Directory Project External Link  Google Programming Languages Directory External Link  Programming Languages External Link  Alphabetical listing of programming languages External Link  The Language List - CUI External Link  99 Bottles of Beer on Languages External Link  "Hello World" in different languages External Link  Web Programming Languages

Object Oriented Programming
External Link  Cetus Links on Object Oriented Programming External Link  Object Oriented Languages DMOZ Programming Languages, Open Directory Project External Link  Google Object-Oriented Programming Languages Directory External Link  Google Pure Object-Oriented Programming Languages Directory External Link  Google Object-Oriented Scripting Languages Directory External Link  Object Oriented Programming FAQ External Link  Pragmatic Programmer External Link  Toolshed Technologies Andrew Hunt and David Thomas

Ruby our top pick
External Link  Ruby Language Home Page by the author of Ruby Matz: Yukihiro Matsumoto
an interpreted scripting language for quick and easy object-oriented programming"; "Ruby has the flexibility of Perl, the reliability of Python, and the dynamic OO power of Smalltalk - all in one convenient package" Conrad Schneiker - Ruby the post scripting language; "Ruby is not a Swiss-army chainsaw; More like a Star Trek(tm) replicator" Andy Hunt
External Link  Ruby Talk - (Ruby Newsgroup)
External Link  Ruby Newsgroup (Google Archive)
External Link  Ruby Application Archive
External Link  Ruby FAQ Ruby Central
External Link  Ruby Central
External Link  Ruby Garden
External Link  Ruby Channel External Link   
External Link  Ruby Introduction
External Link  Programming Ruby (The Book Online) - the Pragmatic Programmer's Guide by David Thomas and Andrew Hunt (the pickaxe book). External Link  (Phrogz online version) External Link  ~ External Link  download External Link  interactive version
External Link  Why's Pignant Guide to Ruby
External Link  "Why" on What is Shiny and New in Ruby 1.80
External Link  Interactive Ruby tutorial
External Link  RWiki with online Ruby interactive interpreter
External Link  Book that is to be
External Link  Original Guide - translated from Japanese
External Link  Ruby Booklist (home)
External Link  Ruby Booklist (wiki)
External Link  Ruby Links (home)
External Link  Ruby Links (Ruby central)
External Link  Ruby Links (Dmoz)
External Link  Ruby Links (google dir)
External Link  Ruby Links (Cetus)
External Link  Ruby Application Archive (RAA)
External Link  Ruby Garden Wiki
External Link  Ruby Online Cookbook External Link   
External Link  Testimonials

Expect
External Link  Expect External Link  Expect Reference

Yaml - Yet Another Markup Language
External Link  Yaml - Yet Another Markup Language (structured data storage/ programming language independent data structures. Improved coding efficiency, little "markup" and simplified parsing, natural programming fit, (unlike XML? well more natural & efficient (in programming (& storage) terms) than XML anyway.))
External Link  Yaml list information
External Link  Yaml wiki
External Link  Most recent Yaml messages [Yaml core on Geocrawler] External Link  Yaml Maiing list External Link  Look Ma, No Tags Yaml Article at XML.com External Link  Yaml Reference Card External Link  Yaml Ain't Markup Language Yaml Spec. External Link  Yaml XML External Link  Yaml for Ruby
External Link  Yaml for Ruby Cookbook
External Link  Yaml for Ruby Documentation
External Link  Yaml for Ruby
External Link  Yaml for Ruby SourceForge External Link  Yaml.rb RAA entry (Ruby Application Archive) External Link  Yaml (oni etc) Toms Lib External Link  RubyYamlEmitter

Parrot
External Link  Parrot

Perl
External Link  Perl Language Home Page (Perl is by Larry Wall) External Link  Perl FAQ External Link  The Perl Institute External Link  Perl Language Page Tom Christiansen External Link  CPAN: Comprehensive Perl Archive Network External Link  Enjoy!
External Link  WAIT - The Great CPAN Search Engine Norbert Gövert & Ulrich Pfeifer. Add WAIT functionality to the CPAN module External Link  here.
External Link  CPAN Search Randy Kobes External Link  Perl CPAN modules Sweden External Link  Index of /ftp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/modules/by-category/99 SUNET: Swedish University Network External Link  Perl CPAN modules UK. Perl CPAN modules External Link  by module External Link  Perl Module List by Tim Bunce and Andreas König External Link  mirror External Link  mirror External Link  Perl The cgi-lib.pl Home Page External Link  Active Perl Active State - MS partner External Link  Perl 4 ManualFTP Perl XML::Parser External Link  Perl versus other languages External Link  Perl at O'Reilly External Link  Perl CD Bookshelf External Link  Object Oriented Perl (book) Damian Conway External Link  Perl DMOZ Programming Languages, Open Directory Project

PHP
External Link  PHP
External Link  PHP Manual
External Link  PHP Builder by Darren Beale External Link  PhP Builder
External Link  PHP Manual PHP Builder
External Link  PHP Intro CNET Builder
External Link  PHP (big) Manual by Stig Sæther Bakken, Alexander Aulbach, Egon Schmid, Jim Winstead, Lars Torben Wilson, Rasmus Lerdorf, Zeev Suraski. Editor Stig Sæther Bakken
External Link  php Tidbits External Link  php Wizard . net
External Link  ThatWare PHP based
External Link  eZ publish PHP based
External Link  PHP Nuke
External Link  PHP / MySQL Tutorial External Link  PHP DMOZ Programming Languages, Open Directory Projectalso
External Link  PHP Groupware
External Link  PHP Scripts . com
External Link  PHP Example Scripts
External Link  Rated scripts
External Link  PHP Resoruce Index
External Link  Hotscripts PHP

Python
External Link  Everything Python External Link  Author's Home Page Guido van Rossum
External Link  Zope
External Link  Content Management Framework (CMF) Zope
External Link  Zope Enterprise Objects
External Link  Squishdot Zope based External Link  Python - Yahoo External Link  Python DMOZ Programming Languages, Open Directory Project

Other Languages
External Link  DMOZ Programming Languages, Open Directory Project

Books
External Link  O'Reilly & Associates External Link  Search Amazon4{~versioning.backup Backup & Versioning

Backup

Afio and Amanda
External Link  Afio External Link  Amanda

Rdiff
External Link  Rdiff-Backup External Link  Rdiff-backup Mailing List Archives

Rsync
External Link  Rsync Snapshots External Link  Rsync on Slashdot External Link  Rsync Documentation External Link  (rsync ruby based) External Link  Stitch (rsync server side in python based) External Link  Duplicity (gpg of rdiff heritage)

Imaging
External Link  PartImage

Revision Control

arch
External Link  Arch/Gnu External Link  Arch External Link  arch Meets hello-world A Tutorial Introduction to The arch Revision Control System External Link    External Link  Arch Primer External Link  Arch Wiki External Link  Tom Lord - Re: version control External Link  Tom Lord's Decentralized Revision Control System Slashdot External Link  Arch 'RCS' specification, reference implementation, and other implementations and forks of the specification External Link  Why arch? External Link  Arch Feature Comparisons External Link  arch ruby

darcs
External Link  Darcs External Link  Darcs/Gnu External Link  Darcs Manual

CVS
External Link  CVS Home Page External Link  Easing Web Application Development with CVS External Link  Documentation - Version Management with CVS External Link  cvs manual online External Link  CVS Article Linux Journal External Link  cvs.rb - CVS library for Ruby. External Link  Introduction to CVS

Subversion
External Link  Tigris.org: Open Source Software Engineering External Link  Tigris Subversion External Link  Suversion status - tigris.org External Link  Subversion - Version Control Rethought

BitKeeper (not free - used to maintain the Linux kernel)
External Link  BitKeeper - The Scalable Distributed Software Configuration Management System External Link  Slashdot | Linus Tries Out BitKeeper External Link  BitKeeper hosted project linux External Link  Linus Torvalds: Linux-2.5.4-pre1 - bitkeeper testing External Link  * External Link  Can A Pure Open Source Company Survive? External Link  A Critique of the BitKeeper License External Link  (icecast-dev) bitkeeper repository moved to cvs] External Link  NewsForge | Linux 2.5.4-pre1 - Letter from Linus about 'bitkeeper'

Aegis
External Link  Aegis

Meta-CVS
External Link  Meta-CVS

PRCS
External Link  PRCS

OpenCM
External Link  OpenCM

Syndera
External Link  Synedra

Vestasys
External Link  Vestasys

Perforce
External Link  Perforce Software - The Fast Software Configuration Management System External Link  perforce comment by Bitkeeper

Bitkeeper
External Link  BitKeeper

RuBuild
External Link  RE: Setting the Ruby External Link  arch ruby External Link  Google Groups: "Setting the Ruby" External Link  Rubuild Project4{~search.engines Data Management, Search Engine Developers and Linux Databases List File Systems and File System Management
List Data Query and Management
List Databases
List ODBMS
List Web Search Engine Developers
List Data Warehousing
List Knowledge Mapping
List Thought Organisers
List Information Trackers
List Placing Databases on the Web - DB, Web Server, Web Presentation Interface

File Systems and File System Management

Interoperable
External Link  Samba - file services External Link  OpenLDAP Open source implementation of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.Thor External Link  Timpanogas Research Group (TRG) open source, NDS-compliant directory for Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Linux.

Journaled and other advanced File Systems for Linux
See Segment  Journaled and other advanced File Systems

Data Query and Management

External Link  OpenLDAP Open source implementation of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. External Link  Gnu SQL

Databases

Open Source Projects
External Link  MySQL External Link  MySQL dot com
External Link  SQL language DMOZ Programming Languages, Open Directory Project External Link  PostgreSQL "is a sophisticated Object-Relational DBMS, supporting almost all SQL constructs, including subselects, transactions, and user-defined types and functions. It is the most advanced open-source database available anywhere."
External Link  PostgreSQL: Introduction and Concepts by Bruce Momjian External Link  Interbase Open Source Database
External Link  the Kylix Project Rapid Application Development for the GNU/Linux Operating System
External Link  IBPhoenix information services to developers and users of Interbase

Com
External Link  DB2 IBM External Link  Informix External Link  Oracle External Link  Sybase External Link  SAP business software

sort
External Link  Object-Oriented DBMSs External Link  Object-Oriented Databases: General Information Cetus Links External Link  An annotated bibliography on object oriented databases by Frank Stajano External Link  Database Systems
External Link  Object Oriented DBMS by Herng-Jeng Jou External Link  Versant External Link  Object Store Sun

Search Engine Developers

If you just want to search the web the page you are after is: Segment  web searches External Link  DMoz - Computers: Software: Internet: Servers: Search External Link  DMoz - Computers: Internet: Searching: Search Engines External Link  Namazu External Link  Mogosearch

ODBMS

External Link  Pure object-oriented Database Management Systems Cetus External Link  Object Oriented Links Sysnetics External Link  Object Oriented Databases Arthur Allen Gleckler External Link  ODBMS Resources A.B. Chaudhri External Link  Object Database Management Group External Link  Object Design External Link  The Object Database Standard Rick Cattellnews://comp.databases.object/ Object Database Newsgroup External Link  Object Database vs. Object-Relational Databases Steve McClure IDC Bulletin #14821E - August 1997 External Link  Whatever Happened to Obect-Oriented Databases? External Link  Object Design External Link  Objectivity External Link  Jasmine Computer Associates, Inc. External Link  Fujitsu External Link  Poet External Link  Versant Object Technology External Link  Osmos Unisys External Link  Persistence Live Object Server External Link  Ontos Intergrator External Link  Neo Logic External Link  Matisse Software ADB External Link  Gemstone External Link  Allegro Store FrantzVendors: GemStone, Object Design, Objectivity, POET, Unidata (O2), Versant.

Placing Databases on the Web

External Link  MySQL DevShed External Link  Home of the bitbybit.dk MySQL FAQ External Link  PHP / MySQL Tutorial External Link  MySQL Perl DBI/DBD Manual

Data Warehousing, Backup and Storage
External Link  Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery, DaWaK 1999, 1st Annual Conference. Held at the University of Florence, Italy External Link  Backup External Link  Data Haven claimed to be "the world's most secure colocation facility based on the worlds smallest sovereign territory, the Principality of Sealand"
External Link  Sealand located in the southern part of the North Sea some six miles off the coast of Britain and from sixty-five to one hundred miles from the coasts of France, Belgium, Holland and Germany; Latitude 51.53 N, Longitude 01.28 E External Link  The Data Warehousing Institute External Link  Data Warehouse External Link  The Data Warehousing Information Center External Link  Data Warehousing at Stanford External Link  IT Toolbox portal for Data Warehousing External Link  Data Warehousing and OLAP a Research-Oriented Bibliography (in progress) by Alberto Mendelzon, University of Toronto External Link  Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery in Databases by Jin Li External Link  An Introduction to Data Warehousing by V. R. Gupto, Senior Consultant, Systems Services Corporation

Knowledge Management and Mapping
External Link  Cartia Visual information mapping
External Link  News Maps using Cartia to map "thousands of news articles, press releases and discussions, all mapped by topic onto a visual landscape." External Link  Autonomy software to automatically extract the meaning from any piece of text... External Link  Hummingbird External Link  Dataware

Thought Organisers
External Link  Mind Manager (Windows) External Link  The Brain (Windows)

Information Trackers
External Link  Enfish Information Tracker External Link  Abuzz

Thesauri
External Link  Controlled vocabularies Resource Guide Page providing links to examples of thesauri and to classification schemes that may be used for controlling database or WWW site subject content. It also provides links to descriptive and critical material about such metainformation. External Link  Software for building and editing thesauri Willpower Information External Link  Comparison of thesaurus management software for PCs External Link  American Society of Indexers External Link  Controlled vocabularies Michael Middleton External Link  MultiTes Thesaurus Development Software4{~ai.fuzzy Expert Systems, Artificial Intelligence & Fuzzy Logic List Expert Systems
List Artificial Intelligence
List Fuzzy Logic

Expert Systems

External Link  Information & Software Engineering Publications, Institut für Softwaretechnik, Austria External Link  Research Projects - Information & Software Engineering, Institut für Softwaretechnik, Austria External Link  Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 1999, 10th Annual Conference Held at the University of Florence, Italy External Link  Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery, DaWaK 1999, 1st Annual Conference. Held at the University of Florence, Italy

Artificial Intelligence

External Link  Information Resources for Computer ScienceArtificial Intelligence Links at ABCentral E.J.Inglis-Arkell 1995-1999 External Link  Artificial Intelligence Resources External Link  AI on the Web External Link  Artificial Intelligence Miningco External Link  Artificial Intelligence Semeion External Link  Artificial Intelligence Home Page External Link  The Complexity & Artificial Life Research Concept for Self-Organizing Systems External Link  Complexity Papers Online External Link  AI on the Web Russell and Norvig at Berkeley External Link  Neural Networks FAQ 1994? External Link  Cognitive Systems Group Publications External Link  Artificial Intelligence Group Selected Publications External Link  Semeion: Research Center of Sciences of Communication External Link  Computational Intelligence Bookmarks of Carlos Andrés Reyes External Link  Cognitive Systems Group University of Hamburg External Link  Artificial Intelligence Lab University of Hamburg External Link  Cognitive Systems External Link  NewsGroups, List Servers & Mailing Lists Artificial Intelligence External Link  Neural Networks External Link  Artificial Intelligence Group Selected papers University of Melbourne External Link  Minds and Machines Course Related Links Peter Suber, Philosophy Department, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana

Fuzzy Logic

External Link  Lotfi Zadeh External Link  Fuzzy sets and systems our top pick External Link  Fuzzy researchers personal home pages by External Link  Robert Full External Link  Links: Fuzzy Logic and Neurofuzzy people prepared by ISIS, Department of Electronics and Computer Sciences, University of Southampton External Link  fuzzyTECH External Link  Fuzzy Archive by Thread 1999 External Link  Fuzzy Archive by Date External Link  Fuzzy FAQ External Link  Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Expert Systems External Link  Interview with Lotfi Zadeh Creator of Fuzzy Logic by Betty Blair 1994 External Link  What is Fuzzy Logic? External Link  Jyh-Shing Roger Jang External Link  forward for book by Lotfi Zadeh External Link  Fuzzy Logic Toolbox External Link  Lotfi Zadeh on the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox External Link  International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems (IJUFKS) External Link  Introduction to Fuzzy Logic External Link  Approximate Reasoning External Link  Fuzzy Logic Sources of Information External Link  Beverly's Fuzzy Bookshop4{~vnc Virtual Network Computing External Link  Virtual Network Computing4{~security.linux Linux SecuritySegment  Linux External Link  Linux Security External Link   
External Link  Linux Security FAQ External Link  Hack in the Box External Link  Net Security External Link  Computer Security Information Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda External Link  Security Focus

Secure Tunnels

External Link  OpenSSH SSH protocol suite of network connectivity tools External Link  Linux FreeSWAN build secure tunnels through untrusted networks External Link  Stunnel - Universal SSL Wrapper allows you to encrypt arbitrary TCP connections inside SSL External Link  sslwrap sits over any simple TCP service such as POP3, IMAP, SMTP, and encrypts all of the data on the connection using TLS/SSL. External Link  VPNC - Virtual Private Network Consortium

Secure Messages

External Link  The GNU Privacy Guard

Vulnerability Assessment/ Security Auditing / Security Scanning

External Link  Nmap open source utility for network exploration or security auditing (stealth port scanning, OS detection) External Link    External Link  Nessus remote Security Scanner External Link  SAINT - Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool Vulnerability Assessment Tool (an updated and enhanced version of SATAN) External Link  NetSaint Network Monitor (network administration tool) External Link  ngrep Network Grep

Intrusion Detection

External Link  Snort Open Source Intrusion Detection System External Link  Snare - System iNtrusion Analysis & Reporting Environment IDS

Proxy Server

External Link  Squid Web Proxy Cache4{~hardware Hardware List Reviews
List CPUs

Reviews

External Link  AnandTech hardware tests External Link  CPU Review External Link  HardOCP External Link  JC-News External Link  SharkeyExtreme hardware tests

CPUs

External Link  AMD
External Link  AMD Zone External Link  Power PC Processor External Link  IBMAlpha External Link  Compaq External Link  Intel External Link  Transmeta Crusoe "the smart microprocessor for mobile computing"4{~majors WWW where it began and some Major PlayersMany apologies for any omissions External Link  IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force External Link  World Wide Web Consortium WWW Home Page - Where the www began at Cern (it appears to be loosing its way though. The www consortium has become an exclusive (expensive membership) powerful vendor interest oriented group that seeks it seems, to morph the web to the end of those interests - rather different from the origins of the www)
External Link  Overview of the Web
External Link  Subject Catalogue - WWW Virtual Library
External Link  "Registered" Servers by Country Catalogue External Link  Internet Society

WWW Major Players

External Link  Adobe External Link  AOL America Online External Link  AT&T Murray Hill, N.J. External Link  Borland External Link  British Telecom External Link  Cisco External Link  Compaq External Link  Corel including WP External Link  Dell External Link  Hewlett Packard External Link  IBM External Link  IntelSegment  LinuxLucent External Link  Macromedia with Shockwave External Link  Microsoft Redmond, Washington External Link  NetscapeNortel External Link  Novell External Link  SGI * External Link  Sun Microsystems
External Link  Java & HotJava!4{~shows Computer ShowsComdex External Link http://www.legaltechshow.com/ LegalTec their External Link  vendor index External Link  Linux Expo4{~security Net Security and Security HackingThis list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.Also of interest off this site TOC linked .html Electronic Commerce and Encryption its legal aspects and other associated linksSee separate sections devoted to Electronic Commerce...

Recommended Texts
Practical Unix & Internet Security by Simson Garfikel and Gene Spafford 1996 O Reilly 1-56592-148-8
Maximum Linux Security A Hacker's Guide to Protecting your Linux Server and Workstation by Anonymous 2000 SAMS 0-672-31670-6

Security Hacking and knowing about it to prevent it
Advisories:
External Link  CERT
External Link  Phrack External Link  CVE - Security Dictionary of Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures Mitre External Link  Unix Computer Security External Link  Security Software "a list of programs used to improve security of computers running a Unix operating system. (A good number of these programs also have non-Unix versions.) " External Link  PrivSoft "Privacy Software Corporation is committed to providing the most advanced and comprehensive privacy tools available to Internet users. As privacy and security concerns on the Net evolve in their nature and sophistication, we will be here to provide the tools needed for the future. If you would like to learn more about these issues, please examine our FTC White Paper on privacy and security." External Link  Network Security Page including Hacker's Tutorial our top pick External Link  Computer Security Information External Link  AntiOnline - Computer Security The Internet's Information Security Super Center! External Link  The AIDE manual (open source security software) by Rami Lehti External Link  Tripwire (open source security software) External Link  Satan External Link  NSClean External Link  SuperAnt Security Hacking Software CD for Linux

The Underground (Security Hacking and knowing about it to preventing it)
External Link  Web Fringe Top Sites External Link  Top 100 External Link  Hackz External Link  War Forge External Link  Terrorist External Link  NetBus Pro External Link  NetBus External Link  Cult of the Dead Cow Back Orifice External Link  WinWhatWhere External Link  Attrition External Link  Zone Alarm Zone Laboratories free utility designed to protect against spyware, by preventing applications from accessing the Internet without explicit permission. Its main focus is stopping data on the way out. External Link  The Haker Quarterly 2600 Hacker's page

Trace
External Link  Visual Route (Windows)4{~views Views of the Information AgeThis list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.Segment  Open Sources - Fresh Memes in Information/Knowledge Sharing (percolation?) External Link  US Government Free Document Website External Link  "The National Information Infrastructure" External Link  National Coordination Office for High Performance Computing Communications External Link  NII table of contents External Link  G8 The Global Information Society External Link  "Europe's way to the Information Society: An Action Plan", Brussels 19.07.94 - follow-up to the Bangemann Report. External Link  The Infrastructure Forum "and corporate IT forum for European Orgainisations"4{~information.technology Information Technology Compendium List Electronic Commerce
List Information Technology

Information Technology
Segment  Information Technology
Segment  Technology News
Segment  Bandwidth
_2 Segment  ADSL
_2 Segment  Cable
_2 Segment  Fiber Optics
_2 Segment  Power Lines
_2 Segment  Wireless
Segment  Communication
_2 Segment  Chat, Instant Messaging
_2 Segment  eMail
_2 Segment  Fax Software
_2 Segment  Web Page - Sticky Notes
_2 Segment  News readers & newsgroups
_2 Segment  Internet Telephony
_2 Segment  Remote administration & file transfer
Segment  WWW Origins FAQs & Guides
Segment  Domain Name Registration
Segment  Top browsers and servers
Segment  Standard Character Sets & Protocols
_2 Segment  TCP/IP
_2 Segment  MIME
_2 Segment  LDAP - Lightweight Directory Applications Protocol
_2 Segment  SOAP
_2 Segment  Virtual Identities
Segment  Online Payments
Segment  Electronic Publishing & Markup
_2 Segment  Design and Resource Bases
_2 Segment  Character Sets
_2 Segment  TeX & LaTeX
_2 Segment  YAML
_2 Segment  HTML
_2 Segment  SGML
_2 Segment  XML
_2 Segment  XHTML
_2 Segment  WAP - Wireless Applications Protocol
_2 Segment  PHP - Hypertext Pre-Processor
_2 Segment  Image Technology
_2 Segment  Sound Technology
_2 Segment  Multimedia Technology
Segment  Scripting and Development Languages
_2 Segment  Java
_2 Segment  Perl
_2 Segment  PHP - Hypertext Pre-Processor
_2 Segment  Python
_2 Segment  Ruby
_2 Segment  Other Languages
_2 Segment  Object Oriented Programming
_2 Segment  Book Publishers
Segment  Data Management, Search Engine Developers and Linux Databases
_2 Segment  File Systems and File System Management
_2 Segment  Data Query and Management
_2 Segment  Databases
_2 Segment  ODBMS
_2 Segment  Web Search Engine Developers
_2 Segment  Data Warehousing
_2 Segment  Knowledge Mapping
_2 Segment  Thought Organisers
_2 Segment  Information Trackers
_2 Segment  Placing Databases on the Web - DB, Web Server, Web Presentation Interface
Segment  Expert Systems, Artificial Intelligence & Fuzzy Logic
_2 Segment  Expert Systems
_2 Segment  Artificial Intelligence
_2 Segment  Fuzzy Logic
Segment  OSs
_2 Segment  Linux
_2 Segment  Mac OS X
_2 Segment  Windows XP
_2 Segment  UNIX
Segment  OS - Linux
_2 Segment  Organizations and Interest Groups
_2 Segment  Linux Distributions
_2 Segment  Secure Linux Distributions
_2 Segment  GUIs and Window Managers
_2 Segment  Linux Resources including Documentation
_2 Segment  Linux Software Sites
Segment  Fresh Memes in Information / Knowledge sharing (percolation?)
_2 Segment  Free Software Foundation
_2 Segment  Open Source Software
_2 Segment  Other
Segment  Hardware
Segment  WWW where it began and some Major Players
Segment  Computer Shows
Segment  Net Security and Security Hacking
Segment  Views of the Information Age

Electronic Commerce
Segment  Cryptography /Encryption
Segment  Digital Signatures
Segment  Electronic Contracts and Electronic Commercial Documents
Segment  Electronic Data Interchange
Segment  Electronic Payments
Segment  Government and other Papers Stands/Approaches to Electronic Commerce
Segment  Interest Groups & Campaigns
TOC linked .html Electronic Commerce

LMLex Mercatoria
Section on LM; LM;
Full Text LM toc Full Text LM 20**

Lex Mercatoria -->  
 

 


Lex Mercatoria -->

( International Trade/Commercial Law & e-Commerce Monitor )

W3 since October 3 1993
1993 - 2008

started @The University of Tromsø, Norway
hosted by The University of Oslo, Norway
in fellowship with The Institute of International Commercial Law,
Pace University, White Plains, New York, U.S.A.

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1993 - 2004
All Rights Reserved
w3 since October 3 1993
ralph@amissah.com

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