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UNCITRAL Convention on International Bills of Exchange and International Promissory Notes, 1988

CHAPTER I. - Sphere Of Application And Form Of The Instrument

Article 1

Article 2

Article 3

CHAPTER II. - Interpretation

Section 1. - General provisions

Article 4

Article 5

Article 6

Section 2. - Interpretation of formal requirements

Article 7

Article 8

Article 9

Article 10

Article 11

Section 3. - Completion of an incomplete instrument

Article 12

CHAPTER III. - Transfer

Article 13

Article 14

Article 15

Article 16

Article 17

Article 18

Article 19

Article 20

Article 21

Article 22

Article 23

Article 24

Article 25

Article 26

CHAPTER IV. - Rights And Liabilities

Section 1. - The rights of a holder and of a protected holder

Article 27

Article 28

Article 29

Article `30

Article `31

Article `32

Section `2. - Liabilities of the parties

A. - General provisions

Article `33

Article `34

Article `35

Article `36

Article `37

B. - The drawer

Article `38

C. - The maker

Article `39

D. - The drawee and the acceptor

Article `40

Article `41

Article `42

Article `43

E. - The endorser

Article `44

F. - The transferor by endorsement or by mere delivery

Article `45

G. - The guarantor

Article `46

Article `47

Article `48

CHAPTER `V. - Presentment, Dishonour By Non-Acceptance Or Non-Payment, And Recourse

Section `1. - Presentment for acceptance and dishonour by non-acceptance

Article `49

Article `50

Article `51

Article `52

Article `53

Article `54

Section `2. - Presentment for payment and dishonour by non-payment

Article `55

Article `56

Article `57

Article `58

Section `3. - Recourse

Article `59

A. - Protest

Article 60

Article 61

Article 62

Article 63

B. - Notice of dishonour

Article 64

Article 65

Article 66

Article 67

Article 68

Section 4. - Amount payable

Article 69

Article 70

Article 71

CHAPTER VI. - Discharge

Section 1. - Discharge by payment

Article 72

Article 73

Article 74

Article 75

Article 76

Section 2. - Discharge of other parties

Article 77

CHAPTER VII. - Lost Instruments

Article 78

Article 79

Article 80

Article 81

Article 82

Article 83

CHAPTER VIII. - Limitation (Prescription)

Article 84

CHAPTER IX. - Final Provisions

Article 85

Article 86

Article 87

Article 88

Article 89

Article 90

[Post Provisions]

[Post Clauses (If any: Signed; Witnessed; Done; Authentic Texts; & Deposited Clauses)]

Annex - Explanatory Note by the UNCITRAL Secretariat on the United Nations Convention on International Bills of Exchange and International Promissory Notes *[NOTE]


A. - Background To The Convention

B. - Salient Features Of The Convention

1. Scope of application and form of the instrument

2. Interpretation of the Convention

3. The concepts of "holder" and "protected holder"

4. Transfer warranties

5. Guarantees and avals

6. Other novel provisions of practical importance

7. Final clauses






SiSU Metadata, document information


SiSU Manifest, alternative outputs etc.

UNCITRAL Convention on International Bills of Exchange and International Promissory Notes, 1988

United Nations (UN)

copy @ Lex Mercatoria

CHAPTER IX. - Final Provisions

Annex - Explanatory Note by the UNCITRAL Secretariat on the United Nations Convention on International Bills of Exchange and International Promissory Notes *[NOTE]

B. - Salient Features Of The Convention

3. The concepts of "holder" and "protected holder"

21. In its desire to win commercial acceptance and free circulation of its instruments in international commerce, the Convention firmly upholds the principle of negotiability.

22. When dealing with the rights of the holder of an instrument and the limitations of those rights by the claims and defences of others, the drafters of the Convention were obliged to make a selection between the radically distinct, and yet justifiable, approaches of the civil and common law systems. The solution chosen was a pragmatic two-tier system that distinguishes between a mere holder and a "protected holder". The rights of the protected holder are freed from the claims and defences of other persons to a greater extent than are the rights vested in the ordinary holder.

23. The solution, although similar in technique to the scheme found in common law jurisdictions, is in fact a compromise since it borrows from both the civil and common law approaches. For instance, under the Convention, a person is not prevented from becoming a holder by the fact that the instrument was obtained under circumstances, including incapacity or fraud, duress or mistake of any kind, that would give rise to a claim to, or a defence against liability on, the instrument. That regime resembles the civil law much more than the common law on the issue. Perhaps most important, a person who is in possession of an instrument as an endorsee, or on which the last endorsement is in blank, and on which there appears an uninterrupted series of endorsements, can be awarded the protected holder status even though any endorsement appearing on the instrument was forged or signed by an agent without authority.

24. The Convention enlarges the protection of protected holders by omitting any requirement that a protected holder has given value for the instrument. Furthermore, the test that one must meet in order to attain the protected holder status is easily passed, and every holder is presumed to be a protected holder unless the contrary is proved.

25. Although not so well protected as a protected holder, a mere holder is not totally unprotected from adverse claims and defences. The holder in fact derives an appreciable degree of protection from the rules contained in the Convention that allow certain types of claims or defences only if the holder had knowledge of them or if it was involved in a fraud or theft concerning the instrument.

26. Under the Convention, the transfer of an instrument by a protected holder vests in any subsequent holder the rights to and on the instrument that the protected holder had. This so-called "shelter rule" again favours the negotiability of instruments. Its main value is to the protected holder as transferor since it preserves the value it invested in taking the instrument in the first place. It is not possible, however, for a holder who is not entitled to any protection to simply "wash" an instrument by transferring it to a protected holder and then taking it back.

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( International Trade/Commercial Law & e-Commerce Monitor )

W3 since October 3 1993
1993 - 2010

started @The University of Tromsø, Norway, 1993
hosted by The University of Oslo, Norway, since 1998
in fellowship with The Institute of International Commercial Law,
Pace University, White Plains, New York, U.S.A.



Ralph Amissah

Lex Mercatoria