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United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts

[Preamble]

Chapter I - Sphere of Application

Article 1 - Scope of Application

Article 2 - Exclusions

Article 3 - Party Autonomy

Chapter II - General Provisions

Article 4 - Definitions

Article 5 - Interpretation

Article 6 - Location of the Parties

Article 7 - Information Requirements

Chapter III - Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts

Article 8 - Legal Recognition of Electronic Communications

Article 9 - Form Requirements

Article 10 - Time and Place of Dispatch and Receipt of Electronic Communications

Article 11 - Invitation to Make Offers

Article 12 - Use of Automated Message Systems for Contract Formation

Article 13 - Availability of Contractual Terms

Article 14 - Error in Electronic Communications

Chapter IV - Final Provisions

Article 15 - Depositary

Article 16 - Signature, Ratification, Acceptance or Approval

Article 17 - participation by Regional Economic Integration Organizations

Article 18 - Effects in Domestic Territorial Units

Article 19 - Declaration on the Scope of Application

Article 20 - Communications Exchanged Under Other International Conventions

Article 21 - Procedure and Effects of Declarations

Article 22 - Reservations

Article 23 - Entry Into Force

Article 24 - Time of Application

Article 25 - Denunciations

[Post Provisions]

[Post Clauses (If any: Signed; Witnessed; Done; Authentic Texts; & Deposited Clauses)]

Metadata

SiSU Metadata, document information

Manifest

SiSU Manifest, alternative outputs etc.

United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts, 2005

United Nations (UN)

copy @ Lex Mercatoria

United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts

[Preamble]

The States Parties to this Convention,

Reaffirming their belief that international trade on the basis of equality and mutual benefit is an important element in promoting friendly relations among States,

Noting that the increased use of electronic communications improves the efficiency of commercial activities, enhances trade connections and allows new access opportunities for previously remote parties and markets, thus playing a fundamental role in promoting trade and economic development, both domestically and internationally,

Considering that problems created by uncertainty as to the legal value of the use of electronic communications in international contracts constitute an obstacle to international trade,

Convinced that the adoption of uniform rules to remove obstacles to the use of electronic communications in international contracts, including obstacles that might result from the operation of existing international trade law instruments, would enhance legal certainty and commercial predictability for international contracts and help States gain access to modern trade routes,

Being of the opinion that uniform rules should respect the freedom of parties to choose appropriate media and technologies, taking account of the principles of technological neutrality and functional equivalence, to the extent that the means chosen by the parties comply with the purpose of the relevant rules of law,

Desiring to provide a common solution to remove legal obstacles to the use of electronic communications in a manner acceptable to States with different legal, social and economic systems,

Have agreed as follows:


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