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WTA /WTO and GATT Uruguay 1994

© WTO Multilateral

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World Trade Agreement 1994 (establishing the WTO and including GATT Uruguay 1994)

   1

ANNEX 1A: Agreement on Trade In Goods

   244

14. Agreement on Safeguards

   2437

14. Agreement on Safeguards

 
<< ~/. >>

14. Agreement on Safeguards

  2438

Members,

  2439

Having in mind the overall objective of the Members to improve and strengthen the international trading system based on the GATT 1994;

  2440

Recognizing the need to clarify and reinforce the disciplines of the GATT 1994, and specifically those of its Article XIX (Emergency Action on Imports of Particular Products), to re-establish multilateral control over safeguards and eliminate measures that escape such control;

  2441

Recognizing the importance of structural adjustment and the need to enhance rather than limit competition in international markets; and

  2442

Recognizing further that, for these purposes, a comprehensive agreement, applicable to all Members and based on the basic principles of the GATT 1994, is called for;

  2443

Hereby agree as follows:

  2444


SECTION I - General

 
  2445

1. This Agreement establishes rules for the application of safeguard measures which shall be understood to mean those measures provided for in Article XIX of the GATT 1994.

  2446


SECTION II - Conditions

 
  2447

2. A Member may apply a safeguard measure to a product only if that Member has determined, pursuant to the provisions set out below, that such product is being imported into its territory in such increased quantities, absolute or relative to domestic production, and under such conditions as to cause or threaten to cause serious injury to the domestic industry that produces like or directly competitive products.

  2448

3.

  2449

(a) A Member may apply a safeguard measure only following an investigation by the competent authorities of that Member pursuant to procedures previously established and made public in consonance with Article X of the GATT 1994. This investigation shall include reasonable public notice to all interested parties and public hearings or other appropriate means in which importers, exporters and other interested parties could present evidence and their views, including the opportunity to respond to the presentations of other parties and to submit their views, inter alia, as to whether or not the application of a safeguard measure would be in the public interest. The competent authorities shall publish a report setting forth their findings and reasoned conclusions reached on all pertinent issues of fact and law.

  2450

(b) Any information which is by nature confidential or which is provided on a confidential basis shall, upon cause being shown, be treated as such by the competent authorities. Such information shall not be disclosed without permission of the party submitting it. Parties providing confidential information may be requested to furnish non- confidential summaries thereof or, if such parties indicate that such information cannot be summarized, the reasons why a summary cannot be provided. However, if the competent authorities find that a request for confidentiality is not warranted and if the party concerned is either unwilling to make the information public or to authorize its disclosure in generalized or summary form, the authorities would be free to disregard such information unless it can be demonstrated to their satisfaction from appropriate sources that the information is correct.

  2451

4. In critical circumstances where delay would cause damage which it would be difficult to repair, a provisional safeguard measure may be taken pursuant to a preliminary determination that there is clear evidence that increased imports have caused or are threatening to cause serious injury. The duration of the provisional measure shall not exceed 200 days, during which period the pertinent requirements of this Section and Section VII shall be met. Such measures should take the form of tariff increases to be promptly refunded if the subsequent investigation referred to in paragraph 7 below does not determine that increased imports have caused or threatened to cause serious injury to a domestic industry. The duration of any such provisional measure shall be counted as a part of the initial period and any extension referred to in paragraphs 10, 11 and 12 below.

  2452

5. Safeguard measures shall be applied to a product being imported irrespective of its source.

  2453

6. For the purposes of this Agreement:

  2454

(a) serious injury shall be understood to mean a significant overall impairment in the position of a domestic industry;

  2455

(b) threat of serious injury shall be understood to mean serious injury that is clearly imminent, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 7 below. A determination of the existence of a threat of serious injury shall be based on facts and not merely on allegation, conjecture or remote possibility; and

  2456

(c) in determining injury or threat thereof, a domestic industry shall be understood to mean the producers as a whole of the like or directly competitive products operating within the territory of a Member, or those whose collective output of the like or directly competitive products constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of those products.

  2457

7.

  2458

(a) In the investigation to determine whether increased imports have caused or are threatening to cause serious injury to a domestic industry under the terms of this Agreement, the competent authorities shall evaluate all relevant factors of an objective and quantifiable nature having a bearing on the situation of that industry, in particular, the rate and amount of the increase in imports of the product concerned in absolute and relative terms, the share of the domestic market taken by increased imports, changes in the level of sales, production, productivity, capacity utilization, profits and losses, and employment.

  2459

(b) The determination referred to in sub-paragraph 7(a) shall not be made unless this investigation demonstrates, on the basis of objective evidence, the existence of the causal link between increased imports of the product concerned and serious injury or threat thereof. When factors other than increased imports are causing injury to the domestic industry at the same time, such injury shall not be attributed to increased imports.

  2460

(c) The competent authorities shall publish promptly, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 3 above, a detailed analysis of the case under investigation as well as a demonstration of the relevance of the factors examined.

  2461

8. Safeguard measures shall be applied only to the extent as may be necessary to prevent or remedy serious injury and to facilitate adjustment. If a quantitative restriction is used, such a measure shall not reduce the quantity of imports below the level of a recent period which shall be the average of imports in the last three representative years for which statistics are available, unless clear justification is given that a different level is necessary to prevent or remedy serious injury. Members should choose measures most suitable for the achievement of these objectives.

  2462

9.

  2463

(a) In cases in which a quota is allocated among supplying countries, the Member applying the restrictions may seek agreement with respect to the allocation of shares in the quota with all other Members having a substantial interest in supplying the product concerned. In cases in which this method is not reasonably practicable, the Member concerned shall allot to Members having a substantial interest in supplying the product shares based upon the proportions, supplied by such Members during a previous representative period, of the total quantity or value of imports of the product, due account being taken of any special factors which may have affected or may be affecting the trade in the product.

  2464

(b) A Member may depart from the provisions in (a) above provided that consultations under paragraph 27 are conducted under the auspices of the Committee on Safeguards established in paragraph 36 of this Agreement and that clear demonstration is provided to the Committee that (i) imports from certain Members have increased in disproportionate percentage in relation to the total increase of imports of the product concerned in the representative period, (ii) the reasons for the departure from the provisions in (a) above are justified, and (iii) the conditions of such departure are equitable to all suppliers of the product concerned. The duration of any such measure shall not be extended beyond the initial period under paragraph 10 below. The departure referred to above shall not be permitted in the case of threat of serious injury.

  2465

10. Safeguard measures shall be applied only for a period of time as may be necessary to prevent or remedy serious injury and to facilitate adjustment. The period shall not exceed four years, unless it is extended under paragraph 11 below.

  2466

11. The period mentioned in paragraph 10 above may be extended provided that the competent authorities of the importing Member have determined, in conformity with the procedures set out in this Section, that the safeguard measure continues to be necessary to prevent or remedy serious injury; that there is evidence that the industry is adjusting; and provided that the pertinent provisions of Sections III and VII below are observed.

  2467

12. The total period of application of a safeguard measure including the period of application of any provisional measure, the period of initial application and any extension thereof, shall not exceed eight years.

  2468

13. In order to facilitate adjustment, if the expected duration of a safeguard measure as notified under the provisions of paragraph 25 is over one year, it shall be progressively liberalized at regular intervals during the period of application. If the duration of the measure exceeds three years, the Member applying such a measure shall review the situation not later than the mid-term of the measure and, if appropriate, withdraw it or increase the pace of liberalization. A measure extended under paragraph 11 above shall not be more restrictive than it was at the end of the initial period, and should continue to be liberalized.

  2469

14. No safeguard measure shall be applied again to the import of a product which has been subject to such a measure, taken after the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO, for a period of time equal to that during which such measure had been previously applied, provided that the period of non-application is at least two years.

  2470

15. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 14 above, a safeguard measure with a duration of 180 days or less may be applied again to the import of a product if:

  2471

(a) at least one year has elapsed since the date of introduction of a safeguard measure on the import of that product; and

  2472

(b) such a safeguard measure has not been applied on the same product more than twice in the five-year period immediately preceding the date of introduction of the measure.

  2473


SECTION III - Level of concessions and other obligations

 
  2474

16. A Member proposing to apply a safeguard measure or seeking an extension of a safeguard measure shall endeavour to maintain a substantially equivalent level of concessions and other obligations to that existing between it and the exporting Members which would be affected by such a measure under the GATT 1994, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 27 below. To achieve this objective, the Members concerned may agree on any adequate means of trade compensation for the adverse effects of the measure on their trade.

  2475

17. If no agreement is reached within 30 days in the consultations under paragraph 27 below, then the affected exporting Members are free, not later than 90 days after the measure is applied, to suspend, upon the expiration of 30 days from the day on which written notice of such suspension is received by the Council for Trade in Goods, the application of substantially equivalent concessions or other obligations under the GATT 1994, to the trade of the Member applying the safeguard measure, the suspension of which the Council for Trade in Goods does not disapprove.

  2476

18. The right of suspension referred to in paragraph 17 above shall not be exercised for the first three years that a safeguard measure is in effect, provided that the safeguard measure has been taken as a result of an absolute increase in imports and that such a measure conforms to the provisions of this Agreement.

  2477


SECTION IV - Developing country members

 
  2478

19. Safeguard measures shall not be applied against a product originating in a developing country Member as long as its share of imports of the product concerned in the importing Member does not exceed 3 per cent, provided that, developing country Members with less than 3 per cent import share collectively account for not more than 9 per cent of total imports of the product concerned.

  2479

20. A developing country Member shall have the right to extend the period of application of a safeguard measure for a period of up to two years beyond the maximum period provided for in paragraph 12 above. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 14 above, a developing country Member shall have the right to apply a safeguard measure again to the import of a product which has been subject to such a measure, taken after the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO, after a period of time equal to half that during which such a measure has been previously applied, provided that the period of non-application is at least two years.

  2480


SECTION V - Pre-existing Article XIX measures

 
  2481

21. Members shall terminate all safeguard measures taken pursuant to Article XIX of the GATT 1947 that were in existence at the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO not later than eight years after the date on which they were first applied or five years after the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO, whichever comes later.

  2482


SECTION VI - Prohibition and elimination of certain measures

 
  2483

22.

  2484

(a) A Member shall not take or seek any emergency action on imports of particular products as set forth in Article XIX of the GATT 1994 unless such action conforms with the provisions of that Article applied in accordance with this Agreement.

  2485

(b) Furthermore, a Member shall not seek, take or maintain any voluntary export restraints, orderly marketing arrangements or any other similar measures on the export or the import side. These include actions taken by a single Member as well as actions under agreements, arrangements and understandings entered into by two or more Members. Any such measure in effect at the time of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO shall be brought into conformity with this Agreement or phased out in accordance with paragraph 23 below.

  2486

(c) This Agreement does not apply to measures sought, taken or maintained by a Member pursuant to provisions of the GATT 1994 other than Article XIX, and Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1A other than this Agreement, or pursuant to protocols and agreements or arrangements concluded within the framework of the GATT 1994.

  2487

23. The phasing out of measures referred to in paragraph 22(b) above shall be carried out according to timetables to be presented to the Committee on Safeguards by the Members concerned not later than 180 days after the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO. These timetables shall provide for all measures referred to in paragraph 22 above to be phased out or brought into conformity with this Agreement within a period not exceeding four years after the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO, subject to not more than one specific measure per importing Member, the duration of which shall not extend beyond December 31, 1999. Any such exception must be mutually agreed between the Members directly concerned and notified to the Committee on Safeguards for its review and acceptance within 90 days of the coming into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO. The Annex to this Agreement indicates a measure which has been agreed as falling under this exception.

  2488

24. Members shall not encourage or support the adoption or maintenance by public and private enterprises of non-governmental measures equivalent to those referred to in paragraph 22 above.

  2489


SECTION VII - Notification and consultation

 
  2490

25. A Member shall immediately notify the Committee on Safeguards upon:

  2491

(a) initiating an investigatory process relating to serious injury or threat thereof and the reasons for it;

  2492

(b) making a finding of serious injury or threat thereof caused by increased imports; and

  2493

(c) taking a decision to apply or extend a safeguard measure.

  2494

26. In making the notifications referred to in sub-paragraphs 25(b) and (c) above, the Member proposing to apply or extend a safeguard measure shall provide the Committee on Safeguards with all pertinent information, which shall include evidence of serious injury or threat thereof caused by increased imports, precise description of the product involved and the proposed measure, proposed date of introduction, expected duration and timetable for progressive liberalization. In the case of an extension of a measure, evidence that the industry concerned is adjusting shall also be provided. The Council for Trade in Goods or the Committee on Safeguards may request such additional information as they may consider necessary from the Member proposing to apply or extend the measure.

  2495

27. A Member proposing to apply or extend a safeguard measure shall provide adequate opportunity for prior consultations with those Members having a substantial interest as exporters of the product concerned, with a view to, inter alia, reviewing the information provided under paragraph 26 above, exchanging views on the measure and reaching an understanding on ways to achieve the objective set out in Paragraph 16 above.

  2496

28. A Member shall make a notification before taking a provisional safeguard measure referred to in paragraph 4 above. Consultations shall be initiated immediately after the measure is taken.

  2497

29. The results of the consultations referred to in this Section, as well as the results of mid-term reviews referred to in paragraph 13, any form of compensation referred to in paragraph 16, and proposed suspensions of concessions and other obligations referred to in paragraph 17, shall be notified immediately to the Council for Trade in Goods by the Members concerned.

  2498

30. Members shall notify promptly the Committee on Safeguards of their laws, regulations and administrative procedures relating to safeguard measures as well as any modifications made to them.

  2499

31. Members maintaining measures described in paragraphs 21 and 22 above which exist at the date on which the Agreement Establishing the WTO enters into force shall notify such measures to the Committee on Safeguards, not later than 60 days after the entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO.

  2500

32. Any Member may notify the Committee on Safeguards of all laws, regulations, administrative procedures and any measures or actions dealt with in this Agreement that have not been notified by other Members that are required by this Agreement to make such notifications.

  2501

33. Any Member may notify the Committee on Safeguards of any non-governmental measures referred to in paragraph 24 above.

  2502

34. All notifications to the Council for Trade in Goods referred to in this Agreement shall normally be made through the Committee on Safeguards.

  2503

35. The provisions on notification in this Agreement shall not require any Member to disclose confidential information the disclosure of which would impede law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises, public or private.

  2504


SECTION VIII - Surveillance

 
  2505

36. There shall be a Committee on Safeguards under the authority of the Council for Trade in Goods, which shall be open to the participation of any Member indicating its wish to serve on it. The Committee will have the following functions:

  2506

(a) to monitor, and report annually to the Council for Trade in Goods on, the general implementation of this Agreement and make recommendations towards its improvement;

  2507

(b) to find, upon request of an affected Member, whether or not the procedural requirements of this Agreement have been complied with in connection with a safeguard measure, and report its findings to the Council for Trade in Goods;

  2508

(c) to assist Members, if they so request, in their consultations under the provisions of this Agreement;

  2509

(d) to examine measures covered by paragraphs 21 and 22, monitor the phase-out of such measures and report as appropriate to the Council for Trade in Goods;

  2510

(e) to review, at the request of the Member taking a safeguard measure, whether proposals to suspend concessions or other obligations are "substantially equivalent", and report as appropriate to the Council for Trade in Goods;

  2511

(f) to receive and review all notifications provided for in this Agreement and report as appropriate to the Council for Trade in Goods; and

  2512

(g) to perform any other function connected with this Agreement that the Council for Trade in Goods may determine.

  2513

37. To assist the Committee in carrying out its surveillance function, the WTO Secretariat shall prepare annually a factual report on the operation of the Agreement based on notifications and other reliable information available to it.

  2514


SECTION IX - Dispute settlement

 
  2515

38. The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of the GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes arising under this Agreement. 5{ ANNEX

  2516

Exception Referred to in Paragraph 23

  2517

Members concerned Product Termination


EC/Japan Passenger cars, off road 31 December, 1999
. vehicles, light commercial
. vehicles, light truck (up
. to 5 tonnes), and the same
. vehicles in wholly knocked-
. down form (CKD sets).

  2518



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