Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

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Visiting address Kristian Augusts gate 17 Domus Juridica 8.etg 0164 Oslo
Postal address Postboks 6706 St. Olavs plass 0130 Oslo

Academic interests

Kristin Bergtora Sandvik’s research agenda focuses on the development of a political and legal sociology of humanitarianism. Her research combines top-down and bottom-up perspectives on the development, role and place of legal norms, legal categories, legal identities and legal claims-making in conflict and humanitarian action. Sandvik is particularly concerned with soft law and with issues related to legality, legitimacy and accountability. While she has mainly used the qualitative methods of socio-legal studies, anthropology of law and international law (structured and semi-structured interviews, participant observation, literature reviews, discourse analysis, doctrinal legal analysis), she has have also directed mixed-methods projects involving household surveys and statistical comparison. Her geographic areas of expertise are Colombia and Uganda. Sandvik is also interested in emergent military and humanitarian technology, specifically focusing on cybersecurity, drones and robotics.

At present, Sandvik is the project leader for the research project: “Aid in Crisis? Rights-based Approaches and Humanitarian Outcomes” (AIDEFFFECT) funded by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs through the Research Council of Norway. 

Sandvik has published in journals such as Law and Society Review, Feminist Legal Studies, PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review, Journal of Human Rights Practice, International Journal of Refugee Law, Third World Quarterly, Third World Thematics, Oslo Law Review, the Australian Feminist Law Journal, Journal of Military Ethics, International Review of the Red Cross, Disasters, Millennium-Journal of International Studies, Refugee Survey Quarterly, Nordic Journal of Human Rights, Conjuntura Austral and RIS - La Revue internationale et stratégique.  Sandviks work has been translated into multiple languages, including French, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, and Arabic.

Sandvik is also the co-editor of

  • Worlds of Human Rights. The Ambiguities of Rights Claiming in Africa (Brill, 2013);
  • UNHCR and the Struggle for Accountability: Technology, Law and Results-based Management (Routledge, 2016)
  • The Good Drone (Routledge, 2016) 
  • Refugee Resettlement: Power, Politics and Humanitarian Governance (Berghahn Books, 2018).


Kristin Bergtora Sandvik graduated from the University of Oslo with a Masters in Women’s Law in 2002.  She obtained an LL.M (waived) from Harvard Law School in 2003, and a doctorate in Juridical Sciences (S.J.D) from Harvard Law School in 2008. Her dissertation was called “On the Everyday Life of International Law: Humanitarianism and Refugee- Resettlement in Kampala”. Sandvik has also studied social anthropology at the University of Oslo, and she has been a guest researcher at the Oxford Refugee Studies Centre and the Refugee Law Project (Uganda).

In 2009, Sandvik was hired by the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) as a senior researcher. In 2011, Sandvik co-founded the Norwegian Center for Humanitarian Studies (NCHS), where she was the director from 2012 to 2016. From May 2016, Sandvik has been an associate professor at the Department of Criminology and Sociology of Law, while maintaining a 20% position as a research professor in humanitarian studies at PRIO.





  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Ikdahl, Ingunn (2021). COVID-19: Towards a Digital Fragmentation of the Right to Education? Yale Journal of International Law. ISSN 0889-7743.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Refugees and the Scope for Mandatory COVID-19 Vaccination (Sy. Cornell international law journal. ISSN 0010-8812.
  • Borgrevink, Kaja & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). The afterlife of buzzwords: the journey of rights-based approaches through the humanitarian sector. International Journal of Human Rights. ISSN 1364-2987. p. 1–21. doi: 10.1080/13642987.2021.1916476.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Ikdahl, Ingunn & Lohne, Kjersti (2021). Rettens rolle etter 22. juli: Minnearbeid, overlevende og gjenoppbygging. Norsk sosiologisk tidsskrift. ISSN 2535-2512. 5(3), p. 28–45. doi: 10.18261/issn.2535-2512-2021-03-03.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). The Norwegian COVID-19 Tracing App Experiment: Lessons for Governance and Civic Activism. IEEE technology & society magazine. ISSN 0278-0097. 40(3).
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). The digital transformation of refugee governance. In Costello, Cathryn; Foster, Michelle & McAdam, Jane (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of International Refugee Law. Oxford University Press. ISSN 9780198848639.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Digital Refugee Lawyering: Risk, Legal Knowledge, and Accountability. Refugee Survey Quarterly. ISSN 1020-4067. doi: 10.1093/rsq/hdab013.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Wearables for something good: aid, dataveillance and the production of children’s digital bodies. Information, Communication & Society. ISSN 1369-118X. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2020.1753797.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Digital Dead Body Management (DDBM): Time to Think it Through. Journal of Human Rights Practice. ISSN 1757-9619. 12(2), p. 428–443. doi: 10.1093/jhuman/huaa002.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Humanitarian Wearables: Digital Bodies, Experimentation and Ethics. In Messelken, Daniel & Winkler, David W. (Ed.), Ethics of Medical Innovation, Experimentation, and Enhancement in Military and Humanitarian Contexts. Springer. ISSN 978-3-030-36319-2. p. 87–101.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). “Smittestopp”: If you want your freedom back, download now. Big Data and Society. ISSN 2053-9517. doi: 10.1177/2053951720939985.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Lohne, Kjersti (2020). The struggle against sexual violence in conflict: Investigating the digital turn. International Review of the Red Cross. ISSN 1816-3831. 102(913).
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Barn, korona og dobbeltdugnaden. Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift. ISSN 0800-336X.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Making Wearables in Aid: Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts. Journal of Humanitarian Affairs. ISSN 2515-6411. 1(3), p. 33–41. doi: 10.7227/jha.023.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Lemaitre, Julieta (2019). From IDPs to Victims in Colombia: Reflections on durable solutions in the post-conflict setting. In Bradley, Megan; Milner, James & Peruniak, Blair (Ed.), Refugees' Roles in Resolving Displacement and Building Peace: Beyond Beneficiaries. Georgetown University Press. ISSN 978-1626166745. doi: 10.2307/j.ctvfrxq90.15.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Safeguarding’as humanitarian buzzword: an initial scoping. Journal of International Humanitarian Action. ISSN 2364-3412. doi: 10.1186/s41018-019-0051-1.

View all works in Cristin

  • Lintvedt, Mona Naomi & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Vi trenger en høring om digitale vaksinepass . Rett24.
  • Graver, Hans Petter; Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Nylund, Anna & Lintvedt, Mona Naomi (2021). Stortinget må vedta en ny lov dersom koronasertifikat skal innføres. Juridika Innsikt.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Lintvedt, Mona Naomi (2021). The role of law and the rule of law in Covid-19 tracing apps: Smittestopp revisited .
  • Jore, Sissel Haugdal; Kruke, Bjørn Ivar; Olsen, Odd Einar Falnes & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). After The bomb: The Securitization of the Norwegian Government Quarters 2011-2021.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Ord skaper verden - om en jussprofessors makt og ansvar. ISSN 1894-8995.
  • Hjorth, Ingeborg Arntine Heitmann & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Memory Wound og Utøykaia: minnearbeid som konflikt.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Rettslig mobilisering og byråkratiske irrganger: deltagelse, demokrati og jussens begrensninger.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Regjeringskvartalets politiske økonomi: en oversikt.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Overgangsrettferdighet etter terrorangrep - et rettslig problem?
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). 11. september som rammefortelling: Kan vi slippe den nå? ISSN 1894-8995.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Remembering 22 July: Litigating Memorials. PRIO Blogs.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). The EU Digital Vaccine Passport as a Social Justice Issue: Problems, solutions, and questions. Global Policy Opinion (blog).
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Bjørkhaug, Ingunn; Espegren, Astrid & Garnier, Adele (2021). The Educated Refugee Woman. An Emerging Resettlement Category? Global Policy Opinion (blog).
  • Skaar, Elin; Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Tønnessen, Liv (2021). Addressing Sexual Violence: Technology and Truth Commissions.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). The Politics of Digital Humanitarianism.
  • Ikdahl, Ingunn & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). 22. juli. [Internet]. Jusspodden, Moderne media.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Hjorth, Ingeborg Arntine Heitmann (2021). 50- Ten Years After 22 of July: Memory and Memorialization. [Internet]. PRIO's Peace in a Pod.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Jore, Sissel Haugdal (2021). 49- Rebuilding and Security After a Terrorist Attack: 22 July in Oslo. [Internet]. PRIO's Peace in a Pod.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Dugard, Jackie; Krutzinna, Jenny; Rosenberg, Anette Ringen; Otiene, Andrew & Tindstad, Marie [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2021). Rethinking digitalization and the right to education post-COVID-19.
  • de Bengy Puyvallée, Antoine ; Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen; Browning, Christopher; Marklund, Carl & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Nordic peace, humanitarianism, and welfare model.
  • Fast, Larissa & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Initial findings from Donor Data sharing research. Presentation to Wilton Park virtual dialogue (WP1777v2). .
  • Fast, Larissa & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). The requirements and realities of sharing data between humanitarians and donors.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2021). Roundtable: Humanitarian Innovation: Have We Come Full Circle?
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Liden, Kristoffer & Fast, Larissa (2021). Roundtable: The Ethics of Humanitarian Technology: Looking Back & Taking Stock.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Digital lawyering for refugees: the humanitarian accountability perspective .
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Westendorf, Jasmine-Kim (2021). The co-production of children’s health data through buzzwords: The problematic relationship between Safeguarding and consumer genomics.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Espegren, Astrid & Bjørkhaug, Ingunn (2021). Emergency resettlement of professional Afghan women: the rise of a new protection category?
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov (2021). Abandoned Digital Bodies/Skilled Afghan women and resettlement .
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). The politics of no-excess mortality: reflections on the knock-on effects of lockdowns, social death and amplified vulnerability.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Graver, Hans Petter & Smith, Peter Scharff (2021). The Pomp of Popular Constitutional Outrage. Verfassungsblog. ISSN 2366-7044.
  • Befring, Anne Kjersti Cecelia & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). PODCAST UIO: Vi trenger en offentlig samtale om hva vaksinepass skal brukes til.
  • Sefton, Therese; Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2020). Hva skjer med Svenskegrensen?
  • Sefton, Therese; Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2020). Korona som dobbeltkrise for det nordiske samarbeidet: en politisk-sosiologisk tilnærming.
  • Hellum, Anne; Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Valland, Tatanya & Erdal, Marta Bivand (2020). Korona, minoritetsvern og statens plikt til å gi helseinformasjon.
  • Hellum, Anne; Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Valland, Tatanya & Erdal, Marta Bivand (2020). Whose Needs? Reflections on Health Information and Minorities.
  • Köhler-Olsen, Julia & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Children in Lockdown. Children’s Rights, Covid-19 and the Case of Norway .
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). «Den gode jurist» og hvem som forstår juss. Juridika Innsikt.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Garnier, Adele (2020). Covid19 und seine Auswirkungen auf die Migration. Chaberlin.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). The SDGs, access to civil justice, and legal technology.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Garnier, Adele & Cellini, Amanda (2020). The COVID-19 Resettlement Freeze: Towards a Permanent Suspension?
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Smittestopp: The rise and fall of a technofix. In Taylor, Linnet (Eds.), Data justice and COVID-19: Global perspectives. Meatspace Press. ISSN 978-1-913824-01-3.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Humanitarian Wearables and the Future of Aid in the Global Data Economy. Global Policy Opinion (blog).
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). The COVID-19 Tracking Apps Ecosystem Unraveled: Critical Issues for Global Health. BMJ Global Health. ISSN 2059-7908.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Governing global health emergencies: the role of criminalization. IHP (International Health Policies).
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Digital dead body management: A new issue for human rights research. Harvard Human Rights Journal.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Liden, Kristoffer & Langford, Malcolm (2020). Korona og rettsstaten. PRIO Blogs.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Langford, Malcolm (2020). Norway and the COVID-19 Lockdown. Petrie Flom Center Harvard Law School Blog.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Digital Brains: Neuroscience, Philosophy and Law in Conversation.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Care. In De Lauri, Antonio (Eds.), Humanitarianism: Keywords. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 978-90-04-43113-3. doi: https%3A/
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Criminalization. In De Lauri, Antonio (Eds.), Humanitarianism: Keywords. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 978-90-04-43113-3. doi: https%3A/
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Safeguarding. In De Lauri, Antonio (Eds.), Humanitarianism: Keywords. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 978-90-04-43113-3. doi: https%3A/
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Smittestopp- appen som rettssosiologisk problem.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Garnier, Adele (2020). How will the COVID-19 pandemic reshape refugee and migration governance?
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). SDGs and the rule of law: the need to globalize the ethics of legal tech.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Hellum, Anne; Erdal, Marta Bivand & Valland, Tatanya (2020). Covid-19 and the duty to provide health information to diverse populations. OpenGlobalRights.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Hellum, Anne; Valland, Tatanya & Erdal, Marta Bivand (2020). Covid-19 and the quest for inclusive health information. IHP (International Health Policies).
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020). Covid-19 and the law: lessons for global health.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Holst, Cathrine (2020). 10 år etter 22.juli: Trenger vi et nytt oppgjør med terroren som rammet Norge? [Internet]. Universitetsplassen.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov (2020). TikTok and the War on Data: Great Power Rivalry and Digital Body Counts. Global Policy Opinion (blog).
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Fast, Larissa & Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov (2020). Digital Bodies in aid: from cradle to grave.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). We will never be post-human: cyber peace, gendered digital bodies and the future of peacebuilding.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). The Weaponization of Killer Trucks: Vehicular Terror and Vehicular Crypts. Border Criminologies Blog.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Humanitarian wearables and digital bodies: problems of gifts and labour.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Fast, Larissa (2019). The Place of Data and Digital Bodies in Humanitarian Operations.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Protecting children’s digital bodies through rights. OpenGlobalRights.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Dijkzeul, Dennis (2019). Humanitarian governance and localization: What kind of world is being imagined and produced? .
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Dijkzeul, Dennis (2019). New Directions in Humanitarian Governance: Technology, Juridification and Criminalization . Global Policy. ISSN 1758-5880.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Digital harm: Challenges, risks and opportunities for ethical donorship in AidTech.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Exploring ethics, rights and child safeguarding.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Digital harm.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). "Book review: Angélica Durán-Martínez, The Politics of Drug Violence: Criminals, Cops and Politicians in Colombia and Mexico". Theoretical criminology. ISSN 1362-4806.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Safeguarding women after disasters: some progress, but not enough. The Conversation. ISSN 2201-5639.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Safeguarding: good intentions, difficult process. ALNAP.
  • Brekke, Jan-Paul; Paasche, Erlend; Espegren, Astrid & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2021). Selection Criteria in Refugee Resettlement. Balancing vulnerability and future integration in eight resettlement countries. Institutt for samfunnsforskning. ISSN 978-82-7763-702-0. Full text in Research Archive
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Local Culture and Everyday Practice: Reflections on ethical issues experienced by DEPP labs part 2. START NETWORK.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Professionalisation, participation and relationships: Reflections on ethical issues experienced by DEPP Labs part 3. START Network.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Starting the ethical journey: Reflections on ethical issues experienced by DEPP labs. START Network.
  • Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019). Technologizing the Fight against Sexual Violence: A Critical Scoping. PRIO. 2019(12).

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Published May 19, 2016 1:17 PM - Last modified Feb. 25, 2019 11:35 AM