Norwegian version of this page

Radicalization and Resistance

The project explores the relationship between everyday religion, stigma, extremism and prevention.

Background

In recent years, several terror attacks in Europe have been inspired by violent jihadism. Some young Muslims are attracted to violent interpretations of Islam and some have traveled to conflict areas in order to join terror organizations, which has received much media attention. Many of them do not have a religious background, but come from a social context of street culture, illegal drug use and crime.

The gangsters-gone-jihadists represent a small minority of Norwegian Muslims. Most young Muslims in Norway are opposed to violent extremism and in this project, we also study how and why jihadi rhetoric is rejected in the regular Muslim populations. In  the Norwegian-language book "Unge Muslims Stemmer" (Young Muslim Voices") we summarize these results, emphasizing the everyday beliefs of young Muslims and their views on religious  extremism.

The project will have a conference in 2020 (more information to follow).

Professor Sveinung Sandberg leads the project.

About the Project

We highlight what Islam signifies for young Muslims, as well as their mechanisms of resistance to jihadism. The social and cultural backgrounds for religious extremism are also uncovered.

The data consists of interviews with young “regular” Muslims, fieldwork in a criminal environment and online extreme material. The project is divided into three subprojects. The first studies Muslim everyday religion and resistance to extremism among young Muslims. The second subproject analyzes the subtle connections between street culture and jihadi subcultures, while jihadi organizations’ use of internet and social media are identified in the third project.

New insight regarding extremism online and in street culture are important, but it is essential to look at how extremism is refuted within Muslim communities. By thoroughly gathering counter-narratives to violent jihadism, preventive steps can be adapted. This will also provide a more informed public debate on Islam and nuance existing prejudices.

Sub-projects

Financing

The project is financed by the Research Council of Norway, through the SAMKUL-program.

 

 

Cooperation

The project cooperates with researchers from the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom), the University of Tennessee (USA), the University of Alberta (USA), the University of Tampere (Finland), the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).

Publications

  • Rune Ellefsen & Sveinung Sandberg (2021). A repertoire of everyday resistance: Young Muslims’ responses to anti-Muslim hostility. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.  ISSN 1369-183X.
  • Hans Myhre Sunde; Jonathan Ilan & Sveinung Sandberg (2020). A Cultural Criminology of ‘New’ Jihad: Insights from Propaganda Magazines. Crime, Media, Culture: An International Journal.  ISSN 1741-6590.
  • Sveinung Sandberg & Sarah Colvin (2020). ‘ISIS is not Islam’: Epistemic Injustice, Everyday Religion, and Young Muslims’ Narrative Resistance. British Journal of Criminology.  ISSN 0007-0955.  60, s 1585- 1605
  • Rune Ellefsen & Jämte Jan (2020). Countering extremism(s): Differences in local prevention of left-wing, right-wing and Islamist extremism. Journal for Deradicalization.  ISSN 2363-9849.  24, s 191- 231
  • Rune Ellefsen (2020). Prevention of radicalization as an emergent field of plural policing in Norway: The accelerating role of militant Islamists. Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing (NJSP).  ISSN 2703-7045.
  • Idil Abdi Abdulle Mohamed & Sveinung Sandberg (2019). "Jeg kan ikke se søstre gå i den fella". Unge muslimer som forebyggere, In Stian Lid & Geir Heierstad (ed.),  Forebygging av radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme. Norske handlemåter i møtet med terror.  Gyldendal Akademisk.  ISBN 9788205518346.  9.  s 199 - 222
  • Sébastien Tutenges (2019). Narrative ethnography under pressure: Researching storytelling on the street., In Thomas Ugelvik; Sveinung Sandberg; Lois Presser & Jennifer Fleetwood (ed.),  The Emerald Handbook of Narrative Criminology.  Emerald Group Publishing Limited.  ISBN 9781787690066.  2.
  • Sveinung Sandberg & Jan Christoffer Andersen (2019). Opposing violent extremism through counternarratives: Four forms of narrative resistance, In Thomas Ugelvik; Sveinung Sandberg; Lois Presser & Jennifer Fleetwood (ed.),  The Emerald Handbook of Narrative Criminology.  Emerald Group Publishing Limited.  ISBN 9781787690066.  Chapter 22.  s 445 - 466
  • Jonathan Ilan & Sveinung Sandberg (2019). How 'gangsters' become jihadists: Bourdieu, criminology and the crime-terrorism nexus. European Journal of Criminology.  ISSN 1477-3708.  16, s 278- 294
  • Jan Christoffer Andersen & Sveinung Sandberg (2018). Islamic State Propaganda: Between social movement framing and subcultural provocation. Terrorism and Political Violence.  ISSN 0954-6553.  32, s 1506- 1526

View all works in Cristin

  • Marius Linge & Sindre Bangstad (2020). Salafisme i Norge: historien om Islam Net og Profetens Ummah. Frekk Forlag AS.  ISBN 978-82-93097-98-3.  114 s.
  • Sveinung Sandberg; Jan Christoffer Andersen; Tiffany Linn Utvær Gasser; Marius Linge; Idil Abdi Abdulle Mohamed; Samah Shokr & Sébastien Tutenges, Marius Linge; Idil Abdi Abdulle Mohamed; Sveinung Sandberg; Jan Christoffer Andersen; Tiffany Linn Utvær Gasser; Samah Shokr & Sébastien Tutenges (ed.) (2018). Unge muslimske stemmer: Om tro og ekstremisme. Universitetsforlaget.  ISBN 9788215031262.  280 s.

View all works in Cristin

  • Rune Ellefsen & Jan Jämte (2021). Violent extremism is not a uniform phenomenon: The key differences in prevention of left-wing, right-wing, and Islamist extremism.
  • Rune Ellefsen & Sveinung Sandberg (2021). Interrupting radicalization: The impacts of family, peer and police intervention.
  • Jan Jämte & Rune Ellefsen (2021). Violent extremism is not a uniform phenomenon.
  • Rune Ellefsen (2021). The Dynamics of Restraint in the Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty Campaign.
  • Rune Ellefsen & Jan Jämte (2021). Violent extremism is not a uniform phenomenon: The key differences in prevention of left-wing, right-wing, and Islamist extremism. Right Now!.
  • Rune Ellefsen (2020). Hvordan unge muslimer opplever og reagerer på muslimhets.
  • Idil Abdi Abdulle Mohamed (2020). Hvordan er det å vokse opp som ung muslim i Norge?.
  • Rune Ellefsen (2020). Opponent på NKVTS-seminar: Mental health issues in prevention of violent extremism.
  • Rune Ellefsen (2020). Differences in local prevention of left-wing, right-wing and Islamist extremism.
  • Rune Ellefsen (2020). Preventing radicalization and violent extremism in Norway: The emergence of a new field of policy and practice.
  • Rune Ellefsen & Sveinung Sandberg (2020). A repertoire of everyday resistance: How young Muslims' respond to anti-Muslim hostility.
  •  (2020). Kunnskapsoppsummering til Bufdir: "Å være unge muslim i Norge: hverdagstro, opplevelser av og reaksjoner på muslimhets".
  •  (2020). Ekstremisme.
  •  (2020). Hva skjer når man kaller aktivistgrupper for voldelige ekstremister?.
  •  (2020). Hvordan møter unge muslimer hets?.
  •  (2020). How do young Muslims deal with hate speech and verbal assaults?.
  • Azin Banafsheh; Rune Ellefsen & Sveinung Sandberg (2020). Hvordan møter muslimer religiøs hets?. Dagbladet.  ISSN 0805-3766.
  • Rune Ellefsen & Jämte Jan (2020). Being labelled as “violent extremists”: The consequences of soft repression. Right Now!.
  • Rune Ellefsen & Jan Jämte (2019). Being labeled as “violent extremists”: The effects of soft repression on individual, organizational and movement levels.
  • Rune Ellefsen (2019). Managing militant Islamism in Norway (2009-2019): A process-oriented perspective.
  • Rune Ellefsen; Lars Gule & Sofie A.E. Høgestøl (2019). Fremmedkrigere og terror.
  • Sveinung Sandberg (2019). Everyday Islam and violent extremism: Counter narratives and public sociology..
  • Sveinung Sandberg (2019). Team ethnography and public criminology.
  • Sveinung Sandberg (2019). Street-jihadi nexus.
  • Sébastien Tutenges (2018). Gatekultur og jihadisme.
  • Marius Linge & Idil Abdi Abdulle Mohamed (2018). Jihadism, faith and everyday resistance.
  • Marius Linge; Jan Christoffer Andersen; Idil Abdi Abdulle Mohamed & Samah Shokr (2018). Jihadism, faith and everyday resistance.
  • Marius Linge; Samah Shokr; Idil Abdi Abdulle Mohamed; Tiffany Linn Utvær Gasser; Jan Christoffer Andersen & Sveinung Sandberg (2018). Jihad - det er jackpot for dem.
  • Marius Linge; Samah Shokr; Idil Abdi Abdulle Mohamed; Tiffany Linn Utvær Gasser; Jan Christoffer Andersen & Sveinung Sandberg (2018). Jihad - det er jackpot for dem.
  • Sveinung Sandberg (2018). Gammel gatekultur møter en ny jihadi cool.
  • Jan Christoffer Andersen; Marius Linge; Idil Abdi Abdulle Mohamed & Sébastien Tutenges (2018). Motstand mot ekstremisme.
  • Marius Linge (2018). Hva skaper radikalisering?.
  • Sébastien Tutenges (2018). Modstand mod jihadisme.
  • Sébastien Tutenges (2018). Oppostion from the street.
  • Sébastien Tutenges (2018). Street crime and jihadism.
  • Marius Linge (2018). Jihadism, faith and everyday resistance.
  • Sveinung Sandberg; Marius Linge; Jan Christoffer Andersen; Idil Abdi Abdulle Mohamed; Samah Shokr & Tiffany Linn Utvær Gasser (2018). Jihadism, faith and everyday resistance.
  • Sveinung Sandberg (2018). Gatekultur, radikalisering og motstand.
  • Sveinung Sandberg; Jan Christoffer Andersen; Tiffany Linn Utvær Gasser; Idil Abdi Abdulle Mohamed & Marius Linge (2018). Unge muslimske stemmer.
  • Sveinung Sandberg (2018). How ‘gangsters’ become jihadists (and why most don’t): Bourdieu, criminology and the crime-terrorism nexus.
  • Sveinung Sandberg (2018). How 'gangsters' become jihadists (and why most don't): Bourdieu, criminology and the crime-terrorism nexus.
  • Sveinung Sandberg (2018). Changes in Street Culture: The new role of religion.
  • Sveinung Sandberg (2018). Unge Muslimske Stemmer: Om tro og ekstremisme.
  • Jan Christoffer Andersen & Sveinung Sandberg (2018). Unge norske muslimer driver «hverdagsmotstand» mot ekstremisme. Aftenposten Viten.  ISSN 2464-3033.
  • Sveinung Sandberg (2017). Gatekultur og Jihadisme.
  • Sébastien Tutenges (2017). Emotional barriers to jihadism.
  • Marius Linge (2017). Resistance towards jihadism among Young Norwegian Salafis.
  • Sveinung Sandberg (2017). The street-jihadi nexus.
  •  (2017). Forskere forklarer hvorfor unge muslimske menn og kvinner tiltrekkes, eller motstår, voldelig jihadisme.

View all works in Cristin

Published Sep. 19, 2016 3:22 PM - Last modified Feb. 8, 2021 1:54 PM

Participants

Detailed list of participants