Inger Johanne Sand

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Phone +47-22850213
Visiting address Domus Nova 5th floor St. Olavs plass 5 0165 OSLO
Postal address Postboks 6706 St. Olavs plass 0130 OSLO


Cand.jur. 1981. Dr.juris. 1994 on the dissertation "Styring av kompleksitet. Rettslige former for statlig rammestyring og desentralisert statsforvaltning" ("Governing complexity. Legal forms of centralised and decentralised public administration.") (Published 1996). Professor in public Law, Faculty of Law, University of Oslo, 2002 - . Head of departement Ministry of Finance 1985-86. Affiliated with research programs under the Norwegian Research Council: - LOS-programmet (Leadership, organisation og governing), 1988-1996, (member of the board 1993-96.), - ARENA (Advanced Research on the Europeanisation of the Nation-state) 1993-2002 (member of the board 1993-95, full time researcher 1996-97). Visiting fellow at the European University Institute spring term 2001. Member of several governmental commissions, head of commisssion on the use of state corporations for services of general interest, 2003). Member of Regional committee on ethics for medical research (eastern region), 2001- 2005. Guest professor Copenhagen Business School, 2005-2007. Dean of Research, Faculty of Law, UiO, 2008-2011. Deputy Head of Department, Institute of Public and International Law, UiO, 2014-2017, Head of Department, 2018 - . Honorary doctorate Turku University, 2011, Gothenborg University, 2015, University of Copenhagen, 2018.   

Research interests

Multidisiciplinary research in general public law and in certain specific fields, cfr. below, covering several crossboundary themes in administrative and constitutional law, EU-law, environmental law, legal sociology og legal theory. Doctoral dissertation on administrative and organisational legal reform in public administration 1985-94. Changes are discussed in relation to long term trajectories exemplified by the concepts rule-of-law, planning and welfare state and network state, in relation to theories on procedural and reflexive Law, and theories of inter- and transnational and societal constitutional law. Post-doctoral research has included the following areas:

1) The further development of public and state organisational models with a specific interest in the use of state corporations and foundations attached to public and state administration particularly in relation to organization of services of general economic interest. The development of forms of public and regulatory law, particularly concerning procedural, discretionary, selfregulatory and reflexive Law. Public and regulatory law has been developped particularly in the fields of environmental, biotech and Health Law.

2)EEA- and EU-law with a specific focus on the relationship between trade and the protection of health and the environment, and on competition law, state subsidies and services of general economic interest. The treaty and constitutional development of the EU and between the EU and the EEA and their member states.

3) The development of an increasingly comprehensive public international law as well as an increasing network of transnational law, both including areas such as trade law, environmental law, human rights, penal law and an international constitutional law. This includes the study of new concepts such as inter- and transnational governance and constitutionalism and the increasing relevance of private actors in international governance.

4) Environmental law with a focus on the regulation of bio- and genetic techologies, including the devolpment of the precautionary principle and the relationship between trade and protection of health and the environment internationally. The regulation of biotechnology and Genetic testing in Health Law. 

5) Legal theory studies with an emphasis on modern and current legal theories (such as Niklas Luhmann, Gunther Teubner, Jürgen Habermas, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and the directions of ciritical legal theory in the Nordic countries, Europe and the US). Legal theories are also applied in contexta with some of the emerging and current changes in the legal regimes mentioned above. That is: - the increasing Europeanisation and internationalisation of law, - the regulation of bio- and genetic technologies, - competition and trade law and environmental protection/services of general economic interest, - changes in the preconditions of democratic government as well as changes in the relations between public and private spheres, - questions of legitimacy arising from the changes referred to above. 

International cooperation: - Project on "Transnational governance and Constitutionalism" at European University Institute, Florence; - Changes in the forms of public administration and legal regulation, in cooperation with researchers at Copenhagen Business School (institute of management, politics and philosophy); - Legal and Socio-legal theory Networks among colleagues in Copenhagen, Lund, Helsinki, Gothenborg, Turku, Århus, London; - Member of Committee on Biotechnology of the International Law Association.

Some publications are on the ARENAs web site. (Workingpapers: no.8, 18 and 29/1997, no.14/2000, no.4/2002
See also: articles in European Law Journal, no.3, vol.4, 1998, Zeitschrift für Rechtssoziologie, Bd.22, H.2, 2001; and in "Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism", eds. Joerges, Sand, Teubner, Oxford: Hart, 2004.


  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2019). Den unge Marx og arbeidet som et kritisk begrep, I: Christoffer Conrad Eriksen (red.),  Den unge Marx.  Cappelen Damm Akademisk.  ISBN 9788202588076.  Kapittel.  s 257 - 276
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2018). Rettssosiologiens plass i dagens rettsvitenskap, I:  Festskrift till Håkan Hydén.  Juristförlaget, Lund.  ISBN 978-91-544-0575-6.  35.  s 537 - 551
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2018). Varieties of Authority in International Law – State Consent, International Organisations, Courts, Experts and Citizens, In Patrick Capps & Henrik Palmer Olsen (ed.),  Legal authority beyond the state.  Cambridge University Press.  ISBN 9781107190269.  6.  s 161 - 187
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2017). Environmental Law In The Age Of The Anthropocene: How To Normatively Communicate On Environmental Change And Risks?, In Andreas Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos & Victoria Brooks (ed.),  Research Methods in Environmental Law. A Handbook.  Edward Elgar Publishing.  ISBN 978 1 78471 256 3.  16.  s 396 - 415
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2017). Kan retten bidra til å ivareta samfunnet - mellom liberale rettigheter, internasjonale markeder og statlige konstitusjoner?, I: Mette Hartlev; Stine Jørgensen; Helga Aune & Anne Hellum (red.),  Ketsch me if you can. Sociale rettigheder og ligestilling.  Karnov Group.  ISBN 978-87-619-3854-1.  kapitel.  s 239 - 249
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2017). The Interaction of Society, Politics and Law: The Legal and Communicative Theories of Habermas, Luhmann and Teubner., In Christopher Thornhill (ed.),  Luhmann and Law.  Routledge.  ISBN 9781472455598.  Part 9.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2016). Demokratiske konstitusjoner, sosiale rettigheter og kunnskapssamfunn, I: Reidun Førde; Morten Kjelland & Ulf Stridbeck (red.),  Cand.mag.,, cand.jur., cand.alt Festskrift til Aslak Syse.  Gyldendal Juridisk.  ISBN 978-82-05-49372-8.  kapittel.  s 385 - 398
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2016). Konstitusjonelle dilemma: mellom kontinuitet og forandring, og mellom demokrati, europeisering og internasjonalisering, I: Hans Christian Bugge; Hilde Indreberg; Aslak Syse & Arnulf Tverberg (red.),  Lov, liv og lære.  Universitetsforlaget.  ISBN 978-82-15-02446-2.  kapittel.  s 431 - 445
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2015). Rettsstat, demokrati og kompleksitet, I: Stig O. Johannessen & Rune Glomseth (red.),  Politiledelse.  Gyldendal Akademisk.  ISBN 9788205480179.  kapitel 5.  s 109 - 128
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2014). The Norwegian Constitution and its Multiple Codes: Expressions of Political and Legal Change, In Karen Gammelgaard & Eirik Holmøyvik (ed.),  Writing Democracy. The Norwegian Constitution 1814 - 2014.  Berghahn Books.  ISBN 978-1-78238-504-2.  kapitel 8.  s 136 - 150
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2013). European Legal Method: - a New Teleology, Law-in-Context, a New Legal Realism or Hybrid Law?, In Ruth Nielsen & Ulla Neergaard (ed.),  European Legal Method.  DJØF Forlag.  ISBN 9788757431254.  kapitel.  s 211 - 237
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2013). Globalization and the Transcendence of the Public/Private Divide - What is Public Law under Conditions of Globalization?, In Cormac Mac Amlaigh; Claudio Michelon & Neil Walker (ed.),  After Public Law.  Oxford University Press.  ISBN 9780199669318.  Kapittel.  s 201 - 217
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2013). Hva er rettens og den rettslige metodes utfordringer og kvaliteter - i rettsstaten, velferdsstaten og risikosamfunnet?, I: Karl Harald Søvig; Sigrid Eskeland Schutz & Ørnulf Rasmussen (red.),  Undring og erkjennelse. Festskrift til Jan Fridthjof Bernt 70 år.  Fagbokforlaget.  ISBN 978-82-450-1253-8.  Kapittel.  s 573 - 583
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2012). Hybridization, change and the expansion of law, In Inger Johanne Sand & Niels Åkerstrøm Andersen (ed.),  Hybrid forms of governance : self-suspension of power.  Palgrave Macmillan.  ISBN 978-0-230-34801-1.  Kapittel 10.  s 186 - 204
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2012). International law between global trade, human rights, new technologies and ethics - a reflection on different legal cultures, In  Pro Natura : Festskrift til Hans Christian Bugge på 70-årsdagen 2012.  Universitetsforlaget.  ISBN 978-82-15-01953-6.  s 420 - 437
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2012). Rettssosiologisk teori i komplekse samfunn: Hva slags teori har vi behov for?. Kritisk juss.  ISSN 0804-7375.  38(3-4), s 181- 203
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2011). A Comment on Kjær. The Concept of the Political in the Concept of Constitutionalism, In Christian Joerges (ed.),  After Globalisation. New Patterns of Conflict and their Sociological and Legal Re-constructions.  ARENA report.  ISBN 9788293137320.  chapter 11.  s 323 - 332
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2011). Niklas Luhmann´s Theories of Law in the Twenty-first Century, In Knut-Erich Papendorf; Stefan Machura & Kristian Andenæs (ed.),  Understanding Law in Society. Developments in Socio-legal Studies. (Society and Law. Volume 7).  LIT Verlag.  ISBN 978-3-643-90072-2.  artikkel.  s 109 - 119
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2010). Constitutionalism and the Multi-Coded Treaties of the EU: Changing the Concepts of Constitutionality, In Kaarlo Tuori & Suvi Sankari (ed.),  The Many Constitutions of Europe.  Ashgate.  ISBN 978-1-4094-0468-2.  Kapitel.  s 49 - 67
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2010). Legitimacy in global and international law: A sociological critique, In Chris Thornhill & Samantha Ashenden (ed.),  Legality and Legitimacy: Normative and Sociological Approaches.  Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.  ISBN 978-3-8329-5354-6.  kapittel 7.  s 145 - 166
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2010). Teoretiske utfordringer for rettssosiologien i globaliseringens tid, I: Bettina Lemann Kristiansen & Anette Storgaard (red.),  Nordisk retssociologi.  Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag.  ISBN 9788757424164.  Kapitel.  s 131 - 148
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2009). Hybrid Law - Law in a Global Society of Differentiation and Change, In Gralf-Peter Calliess; Andreas Fischer-Lescano; Dan Wielsch & Peer Zumbansen (ed.),  Soziologische Jurisprudenz: Festschrift für Gunther Teubner.  Walter de Gruyter.  ISBN 978-3-89949-501-0.  IV. Transnationalisierung des Rechts.  s 871 - 886
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2009). Judicial Review in Norway under Recent Conditions of European Law and International Human Rights Law – A Comment. Nordisk tidsskrift for menneskerettigheter.  ISSN 1503-6480.  27(2), s 160- 169
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2009). Retten som medskaper av sosial mening i komplekse samfunn, I: Helga Aune; Ole Kristian Fauchald; Kåre Lilleholt & Dag Michalsen (red.),  Arbeid og rett. Festskrift til Henning Jakhellns 70-årsdag.  Cappelen Damm Akademisk.  ISBN 978-82-02-30235-1.  Bidrag.  s 531 - 546
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2008). (Re)Constructing the Boundaries of the Market: EU Law and Institutions Analysed through the Lens of Discontinuity, In Hanne Petersen; Anne Lise Kjær; Helle Krunke & Mikael Rask Madsen (ed.),  Paradoxes of European Legal Integration.  Ashgate.  ISBN 9780754673712.  Chapter 8.  s 89 - 110
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2008). Retten som medskaper av sosial mening i komplekse samfunn, I: Claes Martinson; Andreas Moberg & Eva-Maria Svensson (red.),  Marstrandsseminariet 10 år 1998-2007.  Juridiska institutionen vid Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs Universitet.  ISBN 9197480789.  Kapittel 9.  s 33 - 58
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2008). The complexity of regulating the risks and the ethics of modern biotechnology. The role of law, politics and ethics, In Helle Tegner Anker & Birgitte Egelund Olsen (ed.),  Miljøretlige emner: Festskrift til Ellen Margrethe Basse.  Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag.  ISBN 978-87-574-1918-4.  Kapittel 4.  s 67 - 80
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2008). The interaction of society, politics and law the legal and communicative theories of Habermas, Luhmann and Teubner. Scandinavian Studies in Law.  ISSN 0085-5944.  53, s 45- 75
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2007). From National Sovereignty to International and Global Cooperation: The Changing Context and Challenges of Constitutional Law in a Global Society. Scandinavian Studies in Law.  ISSN 0085-5944.  s 273- 298
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2006). Offentlige tjenester mellom stat, samfunn og marked, I: Carsten Henrichsen; Steen Rønsholdt & Peter Blume (red.),  Forvaltningsretlige perspektiver.  Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag.  ISBN 87-574-1416-5.  Kapittel.  s 107 - 134
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2006). The Fragmentation of law on the global level, In Henning Jakhelln; Ole Kristian Fauchald & Aslak Syse (ed.),  dog Fred er ej det Bedste... Festskrift til C.A. Fleischer på hans 70-årsdag 26.august 2006.  Universitetsforlaget.  ISBN 82-15-00960-3.  Kapittel.  s 481 - 496
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2005). Hva er rettens rolle i dag? Forholdet mellom rett, politikk og makt, belyst ved nyere teori og eksempler fra globaliseringsdiskusjonen og Makt- og demokratiutredningen, I:  Rettsliggjøring, kvinner, makt og politikk.  Institutt for kriminologi og rettssosiologi.  ISBN 82-7100-143-4.  Kapittel.

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  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2017). Rett, samfunn og legitimitet. Universitetsforlaget.  ISBN 978-82-15-02744-9.  190 s.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne & Andersen, Niels Åkerstrøm (ed.) (2012). Hybrid forms of governance : self-suspension of power. Palgrave Macmillan.  ISBN 978-0-230-34801-1.  239 s.

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  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2020). Nord-Norge, nordområdene og konstitusjonen, I: Trude Haugli; Siri Gerrard; Anne Hellum & Eva-Maria Svensson (red.),  Dette brenner jeg for! Festskrift til Hege Brækhus 70 år.  Fagbokforlaget.  ISBN 978-82-450-3312-0.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2018). Environmental Law in the Age of the Anthropocene.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2018). Hva er den moderne retten? Rettens funksjon og grenser..
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2018). Hvordan organisere helse i digitaliseringens og menneskerettighetenes tidsalder?.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2018). New Constitutional questions: who protects democracy, the environment and our own biological data, and who regulates the internet?.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2018). Rettslig metode og rettslig pluralisme.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2017). Hva er forskjellen på rettshistorisk og rettssosiologisk metode?.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2017). Marx og arbeidsbegrepet.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2017). Rettslige og etiske perspektiver på autonome våpensystemer.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2017). The Varieties of Legal Authority in International Law.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2017). The lack of self-reflection of democratic constitutional states under conditions of globalization - the Nordic model.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2016). Akademisk frihet og den akademiske publiseringen Universitetenes grunnleggende verdier.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2016). Comments to Hauke Brunkhorst: Democracy Against Capitalism.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2016). Constitutionalism and Nordic exceptionalism Norway and its adaptations to international and European law.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2016). Kommentar til Retten og krisene.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2016). Marx, politisk økonomi og kritikk-begrepet.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2016). The lack of democratic self-reflection under conditions of globalization – in legal and political communication.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2016). The lack of self-reflection of democratic constitutional states under conditions of globalization – the case of Scandinavia.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2015). Challenges to the Evolution of Public Law at the Intersection between Domestic, European and International Law,.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2015). Law as part of societal change – Challenges to legal science.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2015). Rettsstat, demokrati og kompleksitet Ledelse og styring av politiet i en mer differensiert stat.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2015). The self-reflection of democratic constitutional states under conditions of globalization – the case of Norden.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2014). Comments to Hauke Brunkhorst «Law and Revolution in Cosmopolitan age»,.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2014). Eidsvoll-grunnloven – en forfatning i tiden Hva er, og hva betyr konstitusjoner : Konstitusjonell forandring i 1814, 1992 og i 2014.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2014). Expansion and diversity of international law: A sociological view on the changing functions of international law.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2014). Grunnloven som tid, makt og normativitet - i globaliseringens tid. Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift.  ISSN 0800-336X.  31(1), s 70- 74
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2014). Hva er Grunnlovens og konstitusjonens funksjoner og utfordringer i dag? Hvordan skal den balansere mellom kontinuitet eller aktualitet?.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2014, 28. juni). Internasjonalisering av konstitusjoner. [Radio].  Verdibørsen, P2, NRK.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2014). Kommentar til "Folkestyrets varige spenninger" av Johan P. Olsen.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2014). Multi-level legal orders: Changing the function of constitutions and the context of the rights of citizens.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2014). What form of democracy is possible in today’s Europe? What form of Democracy is possible in today's Europe? Integration through law, economic constitutionalism and the new modes of governance. The OMT controversy in context.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2013). Forfatning og unntakstilstand - i rettsstat, kunnskapssamfunn og globale risikosamfunn, I: Dag Michalsen (red.),  Unntakstilstand og forfatning: Brudd og kontinuitet i konstitusjonell rett.  Pax Forlag.  ISBN 978-82-530-3634-2.  Kapittel.  s 402 - 426
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2013). "Hvordan forske på Grunnloven? Tid, makt og normativitet".
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2013). Law, regimes of temporality and challenges of risk society.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2013). "Machiavelli revisited: The position of constitutional law to problems of global cooperation. What is good and global governance today?".
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2013). Nyere tysk retssociologi: refleksiv ret, vidensamfunn og globalisering, I: Ole Hammerslev & Mikael Rask Madsen (red.),  Retssociologi - klassiske og moderne perspektiver.  Hans Reitzels Forlag.  ISBN 9788741256344.  Kapittel.  s 463 - 487
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2013). The unavoidable role of crisis in international law – a legal-sociological perspective.
  • Austvik, Ole Gunnar; Græger, Nina; Holst, Cathrine; Mehlum, Halvor; Sand, Inger Johanne & Steinnes, Kristian (2012). Europa i endring - fase 2: 2013-17. Faglig og tematisk grunnlag. Show summary
  • Græger, Nina; Austvik, Ole Gunnar; Holst, Cathrine; Mehlum, Halvor; Sand, Inger Johanne & Steinnes, Kristian (2012). Europa i endring - fase 2: 2013-17: Faglig og tematisk grunnlag.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2012). European legal method: - a new teleology, law-in-context, a new legal realism or hybrid law?.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2012). Justice and security in the 21st century: Risks, rights and rule-of-law.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2012). The many codes of constitutions and their relevance to the current crisis.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2012). The qualities of a rule-of-law court system when confronted with complex and political cases.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2012). "What can the Law do in a changing Society".
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2011). A Comment to The Future of Integration through Law – in conflicts-law perspectives.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2011). A typical European Way of looking at politics. A comment to J.P.Olsen "Governing through Instituion Building".
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2011). Globalization and the transcendence of the public/private divide – What is public law under conditions of globalization.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2011). International Constitutionalism.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2011). International law between a global economy, risk society and ethics - a new dynamics of law.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2011). Negotiating and Redefining the boundaries between constitutions, sovereignty, transnational and international law - new normative patterns in legal and political institutions.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2011). Nordisk, europeisk og internasjonal rett - Hvilket samfunn skal den offentlige retten regulere for?.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2011). The Multiple codes of a Constitution.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2010). Comment to Self-subversive Justice.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2010). Comment to concept of the political in the concept of transnational constitutionalism.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2010). International law between a global economy, risk society and ethics.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2010). The changing relations between law and politics: How law has become more constitutive of politics.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2010). The multiple codes of constitutions as an explanation to constitutional change.
  • Lacey, Nicola & Sand, Inger Johanne (2009). Gjesteforelesning ved Nicola Lacey: Women, Crime and Character.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2009). Cosmopoliotan justice and risk society.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2009). Does international constitutionalism change the concept and our use of constitutions.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2009). Niklas Luhmann´s Sociology of Law, a comment.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2009). Rettens evolusjon - formel, materiel, refleksiv og hybrid rett.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2009). The juridical, the political, the economic, the social constitution of Europe. The multi-coded teraties of Europe.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2007). Law – in time of war, multi-culturalism and global change: Communicative complexity, fragmentation or loss of context.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2007). The New International Law - Between constitutionalsim, new legal regines and fragmentation. The consequences of a more global dynamics.
  • Sand, Inger Johanne (2006). Demokratiets nye betingelser i en mer globalisert verden. Retfærd. Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift.  ISSN 0105-1121.  (4), s 79- 86

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Published Apr. 21, 2008 10:18 AM - Last modified Apr. 23, 2019 12:59 PM


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