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Protocol to Amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air, Signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929, as Amended By The Protocol Done At The Hague on 28 September 1955, Signed at Guatamela City, on 8 March 1971 - Guatemala City Protocol 1971

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Protocol to Amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air, Signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929, as Amended By The Protocol Done At The Hague on 28 September 1955, Signed at Guatamela City, on 8 March 1971
(Guatemala City Protocol 1971)

Chapter I - Amendments to the Convention

Article I

Article II

Article III

Article IV

Article V

Article VI

Article VII

Article VIII

Article IX

Article X

Article XI

Article XII

Article XIII

Article XIV

Article XV

Chapter II - Scope of Application of the Convention As Amended

Article XVI

Chapter III

Article XVII

Article XVIII

Article XIX

Article XX

Article XXI

Article XXII

Article XXIII

Article XXIV

Article XXV

Article XXVI


The Governments Undersigned

Considering that it is desirable to amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929 as amended by the Protocol done at The Hague on 28 September 1955,

Have Agreed as follows:

The Convention which the provisions of the present Chapter modify is the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague in 1955.

Article 3 of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:-

Article 3

1. In respect of the carriage of passengers an individual or collective document of carriage shall be delivered containing:

(a) an indication of the places of departure and destination;

(b) if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place.

2. Any other means which would preserve a record of the information indicated in (a) and (b) of the foregoing paragraph may be substituted for the delivery of the document referred to in that paragraph.

3. Non-compliance with the provisions of the foregoing paragraphs shall not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage,

Article 4 of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:-

"Article 4

1. In respect of the carriage of checked baggage, a baggage check shall be delivered, which, unless combined with or incorporated in a document of carriage which complies with the provisions of Article 3,

(a) an indication of the places of departure and destination;

(b) if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place.

2. Any other means which would preserve a record of the information indicated in (a) and (b) of the foregoing paragraph may be substituted for the delivery of the baggage check referred to in that paragraph.

3. Non-compliance with the provisions of the foregoing paragraphs shall not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage,

Article 17 of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:-

"Article 17

1. The carrier is liable for damage sustained in case of death or personal injury of a passenger upon condition only that the event which caused the death or injury took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking. However, the carrier is not liable if the death or injury resulted solely from the state of health of the passenger.

2. The carrier is liable for damage sustained in case of destruction or loss of, or of damage to, baggage upon condition only that the event which caused the destruction, loss or damage took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking or during any period within which the baggage was in charge of the carrier. However, the carrier is not liable if the damage resulted solely from the inherent defect, quality or vice of the baggage.

3. Unless otherwise specified, in this Convention the term "baggage" means both checked baggage and objects carried by the passenger."

In Article 18 of the Convention - paragraphs 1 and 2 shall be deleted and replaced by the following:-

"1. The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the destruction or loss of, or of damage to, any cargo, if the occurrence which caused the damage so sustained took place during the carriage by air.

2. The carriage by air within the meaning of the preceding paragraph comprises the period during which the cargo is in charge of the carrier, whether in an airport or on board an aircraft, or, in the case of a landing outside an airport, in any place whatsoever."

Article 20 of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:-

"Article 20

1. In the carriage of passengers and baggage the carrier shall not be liable for damage occasioned by delay if he proves that he and his servants and agents have taken all necessary measures to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for them to take such measures.

2. In the carriage of cargo the carrier shall not be liable for damage resulting from destruction, loss, damage or delay if he proves that he and his servants and agents have taken all necessary measures to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for them to take such measures."

Article 21 of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:-

"Article 21

If the carrier proves that the damage was caused or contributed to by the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of the person claiming compensation, the carrier shall be wholly or partly exonerated from his liability to such person to the extent that such negligence or wrongful act or omission caused or contributed to the damage. When by reason of the death or injury of a passenger compensation is claimed by a person other than the passenger, the carrier shall likewise be wholly or partly exonerated from his liability to the extent that he proves that the damage was caused or contributed to by the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of that passenger."

Article 22 of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:-

"Article 22

1.

(a) In the carriage of persons the liability of the carrier is limited to the sum of one million five hundred thousand francs for the aggregate of the claims, however founded, in respect of damage suffered as a result of the death or personal injury of each passenger. Where, in accordance with the law of the court seised of the case, damages may be awarded in the form of periodic payments, the equivalent capital value of the said payments shall not exceed one million five hundred thousand francs.

(b) In the case of delay in the carriage of persons the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to sixty-two thousand five hundred francs.

(c) In the carriage of baggage the liability of the carrier in the case of destruction, loss, damage or delay is limited to fifteen thousand francs for each passenger.

2.

(a) In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to a sum of two hundred and fifty francs per kilogramme, unless the consignor has made, at the time when the package was handed over to the carrier, a special declaration of interest in delivery at destination and has paid a supplementary sum if the case so requires. In that case the carrier will be liable to pay a sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless he proves that that sum is greater than the consignor's actual interest in delivery at destination.

(b) In the case of loss, damage or delay of part of the cargo, or of any object contained therein, the weight to be taken into consideration in determining the amount to which the carrier's liability is limited shall be only the total weight of the package or packages concerned. Nevertheless,

3.

(a) The courts of the High Contracting Parties which are not authorized under their law to award the costs of the action, including lawyers' fees, shall, in actions to which this Convention applies, have the power to award, in their discretion, to the claimant the whole or part of the costs of the action, including lawyers' fees which the court considers reasonable.

(b) The costs of the action including lawyers' fees shall be awarded in accordance with subparagraph (a) only if the claimant gives a written notice to the carrier of the amount claimed including the particulars of the calculation of that amount and the carrier does not make, within a period of six months after his receipt of such notice, a written offer of settlement in an amount at least equal to the compensation awarded within the applicable limit. This period will be extended until the time of commencement of the action if that is later.

(c) The costs of the action including lawyers' fees shall not be taken into account in applying the limits under this Article.

4. The sums mentioned in francs in this Article and Article 42 shall be deemed to refer to a currency unit consisting of sixty-five and a half milligrammes of gold of millesimal fineness nine hundred. These sums may be converted into national currencies in round figures. Conversion of the sums into national currencies other than gold shall, in case of judicial proceedings, be made according to the gold value of such currencies at the date of the judgment."

Article 24 of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:-

"Article 24

1. In the carriage of cargo, any action for damages, however founded, can only be brought subject to the conditions and limits set out in this Convention.

2. In the carriage of passengers and baggage any action for damages, however founded, whether under this Convention or in contract or in tort or otherwise, can only be brought subject to the conditions and limits of liability set out in this Convention without prejudice to the question as to who are the persons who have the right to bring suit and what are their respective rights. Such limits of liability constitute maximum limits and may not be exceeded whatever the circumstances which gave rise to the liability."

Article 25 of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:-

"Article 25

The limit of liability specified in paragraph 2 of Article 22 shall not apply if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the carrier, his servants or agents, done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result; provided that, in the case of such act or omission of a servant or agent, it is also proved that he was acting within the scope of his employment."

In Article 25 A of the Convention - paragraphs 1 and 3 shall be deleted and replaced by the following:

"1. If an action is brought against a servant or agent of the carrier arising out of damage to which the Convention relates, such servant or agent, if he proves that he acted within the scope of his employment, shall be entitled to avail himself of the limits of liability which that carrier himself is entitled to invoke under this Convention.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall not apply to the carriage of cargo if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the servant or agent done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result."

In Article 28 of the Convention - the present paragraph 2 shall be renumbered as paragraph 3 and a new paragraph 2 shall be inserted as follows:

"2. In respect of damage resulting from the death, injury or delay of a passenger or the destruction, loss, damage or delay of baggage, the action may be brought before one of the Courts mentioned in paragraph 1 of this Article, or in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties,

After Article 30 of the Convention, the following Article shall be inserted:-

"Article 30 A

Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the question whether a person liable for damage in accordance with its provisions has a right of recourse against any other person."

After Article 35 of the Convention, the following Article shall be inserted:-

"Article 35 A

No provision contained in this Convention shall prevent a State from establishing and operating within its territory a system to supplement the compensation payable to claimants under the Convention in respect of death, or personal injury, of passengers. Such a system shall fulfil the following conditions:

(a) it shall not in any circumstances impose upon the carrier, his servants or agents, any liability in addition to that provided under this Convention;

(b) it shall not impose upon the carrier any financial or administrative burden other than collecting in that State contributions from passengers if required so to do;

(c) it shall not give rise to any discrimination between carriers with regard to the passengers concerned and the benefits available to the said passengers under the system shall be extended to them regardless of the carrier whose services they have used;

(d) if a passenger has contributed to the system, any person suffering damage as a consequence of death or personal injury of such passenger shall be entitled to the benefits of the system."

After Article 41 of the Convention, the following Article shall be inserted:-

"Article 42

1. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 41, Conferences of the Parties to the Protocol done at Guatemala City on the eighth March 1971 shall be convened during the fifth and tenth years respectively after the date of entry into force of the said Protocol for the purpose of reviewing the limit established in Article 22, paragraph 1 (a) of the Convention as amended by that Protocol.

2. At each of the Conferences mentioned in paragraph 1 of this Article the limit of liability in Article 22, paragraph 1 (a) in force at the respective dates of these Conferences shall not be increased by an amount exceeding one hundred and eighty-seven thousand five hundred francs.

3. Subject to paragraph 2 of this Article, unless before the thirty-

4. The applicable limit shall be that which, in accordance with the preceding paragraphs, is in effect on the date of the event which caused the death or personal injury of the passenger."

The Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague in 1955 and by this Protocol shall apply to international carriage as defined in Article 1 of the Convention, provided that the places of departure and destination referred to in that Article are situated either in the territories of two Parties to this Protocol or within the territory of a single Party to this Protocol with an agreed stopping place in the territory of another State.

Final Clauses

As between the Parties to this Protocol, the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague in 1955 and this Protocol shall be read and interpreted together as one single instrument and shall be known as the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague, 1955, and at Guatemala City, 1971.

Until the date on which this Protocol enters into force in accordance with the provisions of Article XX, it shall remain open for signature by all States Members of the United Nations or of any of the Specialized Agencies or of the International Atomic Energy Agency or Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and by any other State invited by the General Assembly of the United Nations to become a Party to this Protocol.

1. This Protocol shall be subject to ratification by the signatory States.

2. Ratification of this Protocol by any State which is not a Party to the Warsaw Convention or by any State which is not a Party to the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague, 1955, shall have the effect of accession to the Warsaw Convention as amended at the Hague, 1955, and at Guatemala City, 1971.

3. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the International Civil Aviation Organization.

1. This Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the deposit of the thirtieth instrument of ratification on the condition, however, that the total international scheduled air traffic, expressed in passenger- kilometers, according to the statistics for the year 1970 published by the International Civil Aviation Organization, of the airlines of five States which have ratified this Protocol, represents at least 40 % of the total international scheduled air traffic of the airlines of the member States of the International Civil Aviation Organization in that year. If, at the time of deposit of the thirtieth instrument of ratification, this condition has not been fulfilled, the Protocol shall not come into force until the ninetieth day after this condition shall have been satisfied. This Protocol shall come into force for each State ratifying after the deposit of the last instrument of ratification necessary for entry into force of this Protocol on the ninetieth day after the deposit of its instrument of ratification.

2. As soon as this Protocol comes into force it shall be registered with the United Nations by the International Civil Aviation Organization.

1. After the entry into force of this Protocol it shall be open for accession by any State referred to in Article XVIII.

2. Accession to this Protocol by any State which is not a Party to the Warsaw Convention or by any State which is not a Party to the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague, 1955, shall have the effect of accession to the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague, 1955, and at Guatemala City, 1971.

3. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the International Civil Aviation Organization and shall take effect on the ninetieth day after the deposit.

1. Any Party to this Protocol may denounce the Protocol by notification addressed to the International Civil Aviation Organization.

2. Denunciation shall take effect six months after the date of receipt by the International Civil Aviation Organization of the notification of denunciation.

3. As between the Parties to this Protocol, denunciation by any of them of the Warsaw Convention in accordance with Article 39 thereof or of the Hague Protocol in accordance with Article XXIV thereof shall not be construed in any way as a denunciation of the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague, 1955, and at Guatemala City, 1971.

1. Only the following reservations may be made to this Protocol:-

(a) a State whose courts are not authorized under its law to award the costs of the action including lawyers' fees may at any time by a notification addressed to the International Civil Aviation Organization declare that Article 22, paragraph 3 (a) shall not apply to its courts; and

(b) a State may at any time declare by a notification addressed to the International Civil Aviation Organization that the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague 1955, and at Guatemala City, 1971 shall not apply to the carriage of persons, baggage and cargo for its military authorities on aircraft, registered in that State, the whole capacity of which has been reserved by or on behalf of such authorities.

2. Any State having made a reservation in accordance with the preceding paragraph may at any time withdraw such reservation by notification to the International Civil Aviation Organization.

The International Civil Aviation Organization shall promptly inform all signatory or acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession, the date of entry into force of this Protocol, and other relevant information.

As between the Parties to this Protocol which are also Parties to the Convention, Supplementary to the Warsaw Convention, for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air Performed by a Person Other than the Contracting Carrier, signed at Guadalajara on 18 September 1961 (hereinafter referred to as the "Guadalajara Convention") any reference to the "Warsaw Convention" contained in the Guadalajara Convention shall include reference to the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague, 1955, and at Guatemala City, 1971, in cases where the carriage under the agreement referred to in Article 1, paragraph (b) of the Guadalajara Convention is governed by this Protocol.

This Protocol shall remain open, until 30 September 1971, for signature by any State referred to in Article XVIII, at the Ministry of External Relations of the Republic of Guatemala and thereafter, until it enters into force in accordance with Article XX, at the International Civil Aviation Organization. The Government of the Republic of Guatemala shall promptly inform the International Civil Aviation Organization of any signature and the date thereof during the time that the Protocol shall be open for signature in Guatemala.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, having been duly authorized, have signed this Protocol.

DONE at Guatemala City on the eighth day of the month of March of the year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Seventy-one in three authentic texts in the English, French and Spanish languages. The International Civil Aviation Organization shall establish an authentic text of this Protocol in the Russian language.* In the case of any inconsistency, the text in the French language, in which language the Warsaw Convention of 12 October 1929 was drawn up, shall prevail.

* The authentic text of the Protocol in the Russian language was approved by the Council of ICAO at its 86th Session, on 9 October 1975, and is published under the authority of the Secretary General.


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