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Lex Mercatoria: Electronic Commerce and Encryption Pages

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Lex Mercatoria: Electronic Commerce and Encryption Pages

Electronic Commerce & Encryption

Electronic Commerce Documents

Cryptography /Encryption

Agreements
Interest Groups
Industry
AES Algorithm (Advanced Encryption Standard)
NIST AES
AES Winner announced October 2nd, 2000
Data Encryption Standard (DES)
Reference & Links
Security Software
Secure Point to Point Connection and File Sharing
Encrypted Files and Mail
Linux Encryption Solutions
Steganography
Organizations
Commercial
Other
Biometrics
Quantum physics cryptography

Digital Signatures

Electronic Contracts and Electronic Commercial Documents

EDI - Electronic Data Interchange

Electronic Payments

Solutions
Discusion
Writings and Links to them

Authentication Solutions - Virtual Identities

Government and other Documents: Stands/Approaches to Electronic Commerce

Cybercrime

Privacy

NoN-Privacy / Security?

Interest Groups & Campaigns

Industry

Electronic Commerce Resource Sites

Endnotes

Endnotes


eCommerce & Legal issues at ‹http://ecominfocenter.com/› eComInfoCenter.com

For other documents related to electronic commerce (such as EDI or cryptography) look under the relevant subject heading below.

This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

Cryptography applied in various ways and circumstances is essential for security and trust:

  • confidentiality
  • integrity
  • authentication
  • non-repudiation
  • In sum, read, cryptography impacts upon every aspect of considered e-commerce and private e-business relations.

    #agreements Agreements

    #groups Interest Groups

    #aes AES Algorithm (Advanced Encryption Standard)

    #reference Reference

    #software Security Software

    A Short History of Cryptography by Fred Cohen from Introductory Information Protection "a book about keeping people and organizations from harm caused by information. It requires little or mathematics and is suitable as a text for a graduate level or advanced undergraduate course." Fred Cohen & Associates

    TRUSTe

    AES Algorithm Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Development Effort, Computer Security Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST is an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department's Technology Administration see Encryption toolkit Advanced Encryption Standard of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    Report

    "SPECIAL NOTE - Intellectual Property NIST reminds all interested parties that the adoption of AES is being conducted as an open standards-setting activity. Specifically, NIST has requested that all interested parties identify to NIST any patents or inventions that may be required for the use of AES. NIST hereby gives public notice that it may seek redress under the antitrust laws of the United States against any party in the future who might seek to exercise patent rights against any user of AES that have not been disclosed to NIST in response to this request for information."

    "Our goals are to strengthen the U.S. economy and improve the quality of life by providing the information technology industry and users with needed measurements and standards and to provide NIST with high quality information technology services."

    AES entry on Wikipedia

    Rijndael by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen   of Belgium.

    publications Vincent Rijmen list DBLP Bibliography Server list 2everything

    Joan Daemen list DBLP Bibliography Server list 2everything

    Cryptix

    The Rijndael algorithm is based on a block cipher algorithm (The Block Cipher Square Algorithm) described in an article in the October, 1997 issue of DDJ  

    6{ 5 Finalists, August 1999

    Twofish

    Serpent

    MARS

    RC6

    Strong Encryption Package Federal Information Processing

    Announcing the Standard for Data Encryption Standard (DES) FIPS PUB 46-2, Supersedes FIPS PUB 46-1, 1988 January 22 Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 46-2 1993 December 30.

    The Crypto Link Farm - Encryption and Security-related Resources A few of (the many) mirrors auto-updated:  

    Security pointers by Tom Dunigan

    Security and Cryptography by Mark McCutcheon

    Crypto Page Paulo Barreto

    Cryptography Francis Litterio

    Security & Cryptography standards by Michael Waidner

    Security and Encryption * Quick Links

    Mitre CVE - Security Dictionary of Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures

    Open Secure Shell - openSSH

    Linux FreeS/WAN Secure point to point connection anywhere on the Internet, Strong Encryption. Developed outside the United States and not subject to US export restrictions.

    Linux PPTP Server the PPTP Linux Server works with WinNT PPTP clients and C. S. Ananian's PPTP Linux clients. Virtual Private Networking technology enables the use the public Internet backbone for private data communications, encryption and encapsulation technology, permitting the carving out of a private channel/passageway through the Internet.

    Bizee free download of V-ONE technology that permits secure connection with other users of the same technology. It performs authentication and uses 168-bit Triple DES encryption to secure e-commerce, as well as to encrypt data being transmitted as part of auctions, chat rooms, e-mail and classified advertisements. Adequate security has been a big obstacle to business-to-business commerce to date... July 1999

    Gnut Linux/Unix console gnutella clone

    Freenet (The Free Network Project Homepage) "Re-Wiring the Internet". Hosted by Source Forge "Freenet is a peer-to-peer network designed to allow the distribution of information over the Internet in an efficient manner, without fear of censorship. Freenet is completely decentralized, meaning that there is no person, computer, or organisation in control of Freenet or essential to its operation. This means that Freenet cannot be attacked like centralized peer-to-peer systems such as Napster. Freenet also employs intelligent routing and caching meaning that it learns to route requests more efficiently, automatically mirrors popular data, makes network flooding almost impossible, and moves data to where it is in greatest demand. All of this makes it much more efficient and scalable than systems such as Gnutella."

    Mojo Nation claimed to be "a revolutionary new publishing and content-sharing network. [That]combines the flexibility of the marketplace and the distributed computing power of the Internet to go far beyond current filesharing systems... Mojo Nation is building an efficient, massively scalable and secure marketplace for distributors and consumers of digital content."

    Wheres dot com Internet file sharing programs

    #linux Linux Solutions

    #commercial Commercial

    Speak Free Secure fully encrypted Chat Program

    HushMail web based secure e-mail

    Freedom "Untraceable" privacy system from ZeroKnowledge

    1on1 Secure Mail The free-to-use service that requires the use of a sizable e-mail Windows PC client, which may be downloaded from the site or obtained on CD.

    Mutt a pgp-aware mailer

    SUIDNet "secure IRC network"

    GPG - GNU Privacy Guard Download GPG which uses only free algorithms, and conforming to the OpenPGP standard

    PGP Sites #fix

    See also Linux Encryption

    GPG - GNU Privacy Guard Download GPG which uses only free algorithms, and conforming to the OpenPGP standard

    Project Aegypten (Free Software Sphinx-Clients) for Linux "The Sphinx project launched by German authorities aims to improve secure email exchange... Proprietary products are already on the way, but with the project ?gypten there is now also a Free Software solution going to be realized for popular mail user agents (sphinx-enabling KMail and mutt are essential goals)."

    Encrypting your Disks with Linux Doobee. R. Tzeck

    PPDD requires recompiling (patching) the Linux kernel to allow strong encryption and a special device. Good documentation.

    TCFS involves the running of a daemon which exports an encrypted filesystem as an NFS share.

    Crypto Kernel Patch a patch for any given Linux kernel to make the loopback device use encryption algorithms.

    Outguess Steganography

    National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST is an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department's Technology Administration

    NCSA

    National Infrastructure Protection U.S. Department of Homeland Security

    The Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office (CIAO) moved to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security

    Internet Security Alliance a non-profit collaboration between EIA and Carnegie Mellon's CERT Coordination Center (CERT/CC), with a diverse and international membership

    ETSI Telecom Standards

    CERT a center of Internet security expertise

     

    RSA Security "the most trusted name in e-security"

    RSA Security Incorporated owned key encryption patents (US) which expired September 26th 2000.

    Other

    Speak Free Secure fully encrypted Chat Program

    Crypto-Central SHA algorithm MD5 etc. Delphi: Advanced encryption Components

    Biometrics A Journal of the International Biometric Society

    NTT

    This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

    Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

    Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 2000, United States

    is law, granting (from 1st October, 2000) electronic signatures the same binding legal status as hand-written signatures and thereby making the signing of enforceable contracts online possible on the click of a mouse, with all that that may imply.

    Bill

    "A bill to regulate interstate commerce by electronic means by permitting and encouraging the continued expansion of electronic commerce through the operation of free market forces, and for other purposes"

    Legal Aspects of the E-Revolution (archived site) European Commission - Information Society Directorate-General

    Internet Law & Policy Forum "dedicated to promoting the global growth of e-commerce by contributing to a better understanding of the particular legal issues which arise from the cross border nature of the electronic medium"

    Links on Law, Cryptography and Electronic Communications Prepared by Juan A. Avellan of the Information Technology Law Unit, Queen Mary and Westfield College

    Global E-Commerce Law Baker & McKenzie

    The CyberNotary Committee Science and Technology Section of the American Bar Assocation co Chairs: Theodore S. Barassi & Joseph H. Alhadeff

    Digital Notary Systems American Bar Association

    Digital Signatures Guidelines American Bar Association

    This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

    Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

    ebXML The UN and OASIS effort: "Creating a Single Global Electronic Market"

    Electronic Business XML Initiative (ebXML) The XML Cover Pages by Robin Cover  

    XAML (Transaction Authority Markup Language) "vendor neutral that enables the coordination and processing of online transactions in the rapidly developing in the rapidly emerging world of XML web services" backed by Hewlet Packard, IBM, Oracle, and Sun. XAML Cover Page FAQ

    Bolero *

    Bolero backed by about 120 banks and logistics firms is trying to set up a global standard that would be accepted by governments, shippers, and banks. In doing so the plan to tackle such age old legal concepts as the bill of lading. Bolero plans to use an encrypted communication network to shuffle documents around the world, a process that's now hampered by incompatible computer systems and bureaucrats. Bolero is owned 50-50 by the

    eOriginal Electronic Original (Steven Bisbee). From 1999

    "eOriginal, Inc. has developed and markets, under two U.S. patents, a fully integrated transaction system that delivers the trusted means for producing electronic documents that are unique, secure and reliable for all business and legal purposes. The company's product suite, marketed as eOriginal, enables the creation of the Electronic Original."

    This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

    Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

    Electronic Commerce and EDI at NRCCL's Law and Information Technology Links Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law NRCCL

    check UNECE for the United Nations/EDIFACT Standards.

    Revised articles of draft uniform rules on the legal aspects of electronic data interchange

    United Nations Revised draft model statutory provisions on the legal aspects of electronic data interchange

    Harbinger Now holds Premonos materials

    Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

    NACHA - Electronic Payments Association "NACHA is a not-for-profit trade association that develops operating rules and business practices for the Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network and for other areas of electronic payments. ? NACHA activities and initiatives facilitate the adoption of electronic payments in the areas of Internet commerce, electronic bill payment and presentment (EBPP), financial electronic data interchange (EDI), international payments, electronic checks, electronic benefits transfer (EBT) and student lending. We also promote the use of electronic payment products and services, such as Direct Deposit and Direct Payment.

    NACHA represents more than 12,000 financial institutions through our network of regional ACH associations.? We have over 600 members in our seven industry councils and corporate Affiliate Membership program."

    Project ACTION "a program to develop a payment product for Internet transactions utilizing Automated Clearing House (ACH) credits"

    E-Cash Technologies Inc. "global software solutions that extend and enhance physical-world payment methods"

    Cybercash "VeriSign and CyberCash join forces to offer complete e-commerce solutions"

    Globeset Trinitech "securing payment in the digital age"

    Mobey Forum "a financial industry-driven forum, whose mission is to encourage the use of mobile technology in financial services ... - such as payment, remote banking and brokerage"

    Paypal Confinity. Paypal now Nokia approved allows you to make instant payments to anyone with a cell phone, two-way pager, or handheld device, such as the Palm? organizer. Permits such things as the settlement of debts, borrowing of cash and splitting of bills/ expenses without the hassle of going to ATMs or keeping track of debts. Paypal is free and works seamlessly with your existing credit card and bank account. PayPal? software can be "beamed" to your friend or business associate who can then be "beamed" money instantly. The system charges your credit card when you next sync your device, and your friend can register later at PayPal.com.

    BigStep Build your own web-based e-commerce site, free service

    ECML Electronic Commerce Modeling Language (ECML) is to be a universal format for wallets and merchant web sites. ECML uses a set of uniform field names to streamlines the process by which merchants collect electronic data for shipping, billing, and payment. Its development is a collaboration between: American Express, AOL, Compaq, CyberCash, IBM, MasterCard, Microsoft, SETCo, Sun Microsystems, Transactor Networks, Trintech, and Visa. 18/06/1999

    FpML FpML, an XML-based markup language that allows for Net-based integration of services such as electronic trading and risk analysis backed by IBM, PricewaterhouseCoopers and J.P. Morgan. 18/06/1999

    NetBanx

    DigiCash (went under) Electronic Money (That's What I Want) (Read up on David Chaum) Article by Steven Levy for HotWired, December 1994. David Chaum Publications How much do you trust Big Brother? interview of David Chaum, 1997 & the Mark Twain Bank

    CheckFree "the undisputed leader in moving money electronically"

    Millicent (Digital / Compaq)

    Visa

    Hyper Mart free service with advertising part of the Go2Net network

    Sitematic monthly charges

    MindSpring Biz monthly charges

    E-Commerce servers

    This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

    Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

    W3C - Electronic Commerce Interest Group? W3C has closed its Ecommerce and Micropayment Activity, but through a number of activities W3C is committed to key factors for success in the evolution of Electronic Commerce.

    Guide to Online Payments US Federal Trade Commission

    NACHA - Electronic Payments Association NACHA is a not-for-profit trade association that develops operating rules and business practices for the Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network and for other areas of electronic payments. NACHA represents more than 12,000 financial institutions through our network of regional ACH associations.? We have over 600 members in our seven industry councils and corporate Affiliate Membership program.?

    Epayment Links Institute for eCommerce, Carnegie Mellon University

    Internet Funds Transfer Services - Electronic Payments Elsop - Electronic Software Publishing Corporation

    Payment Systems Information Resources Federal Reserve Bank of New York

    The Future of Money edited by Robert Knautz, 1997 Policy Spotlight

    Joint Electronic Payments Protocol (JEPI) to make it easier for consumers to use multiple payment systems from Web browsers:

    Millicent from Digital Equipment Corporation Information

    Microsoft: Passport

    e$ Page Robert Hettinga

    Money - Past, Present & Future Sources of Information on Monetary History, Contemporary Developments, and the Prospects for Electronic Money maintained by Roy Davies

    The Future of Money in the Information Age by the Cato Institute, 1997.

    Implications for Central Banks of the Development of Electronic Money 11th November 1996 by the Central Banker's Central Bank the Bank for International Settlement, Basle, Switzerland.

    Crypto-Anarchy and Virtual Communities by Timothy C. May (1995)

    Commerce Related Sites including Banking and Finance

    Liberty Alliance Project (Sun etc.)

    Linux-PAM "Pluggable Authentication Modules for Linux is a suite of shared libraries that enable the local system administrator to choose how applications authenticate users."

    PAM

    User Authentication HOWTO "Explains how user and group information is stored and how users are authenticated on a Linux system (PAM), and how to secure your system's user authentication." by Peter Hernberg

    This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

    Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

    Electronic Commerce at the International Chamber of Commerce

    Legal Aspects of the E-Revolution European Commission - Information Society Directorate-General

    This group backed "The Commerce Standard", described as: a uniform open and free standard for Electronic Commerce. ZiffDavis publisher initiative developed collaboratively with more than 200 top global Internet merchants, IT vendors, analysts, policymakers, consumer advocates, academics and journalists in an effort to establish a set of merchant practices and policies. Topics for Draft 1.0 include: merchant information, product availability, charges and fee information, warranties, product support, search capabilities, privacy, security, payment and billing, receipt of order notification, order status and history, shipping delivery and order execution, cancellations, returns, refunds and customer support. Launched in 12 July 1999, completion planned for December 1999. Global Information Infrastructure.

    Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe) An international non-governmental organization, managed by executives of 29 major enterprises in the United States, Europe and Asia, that promotes establishing global rules for electronic commerce over the Internet.

    GBDe member companies submit requests for legal arrangements for electronic commerce representing the interest of industries during the first GBDe convention held on 13 September 1999 in Paris, and these will be submitted to the government of each country.

    The following nine themes will be covered: (1) authentication and security, (2) consumer credibility, (3) contents/business communication, (4) inter-operability of information infrastructure and governance, (5) intellectual property, (6) control, (7) reliability, (8) protection of private data and (9) taxes/tariffs.

    Member companies include: Japan - Fujitsu Ltd., NEC Corp., Toshiba Corp., Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Bank Ltd., Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp; North America - IBM Corp., MCIWorldcom Inc., Nortel Networks Corp., Time Warner Inc. and Walt Disney Co.; Europe - France Telecom, Nokia of Finland, DaimlerChrysler Corp. of Germany and others.

    Convention on Cybercrime Budapest, 2001, Council of Europe

    Privacy

    See also Linux Encryption

    P3P WWW Consortium

    Echelon Watch administered by ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) in conjunction with the Free Congress Foundation, the Electronic Privacy Information Center, Cyber-Rights and Cyber-Liberties (UK) and the Omega Foundation.

    Echelon Watch Cyber-Rights & Cyber-Liberties (UK)

    Statewatch monitoring the state and civil liberties in the European Union

    This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject.

    Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium

    Cyber Rights and Cyber Liberties U.K a non-profit civil liberties organisation founded by Yaman Akdeniz. Information on Wassenaar and on the UK Freedom of information Files

    The Internet Law and Policy Forum "dedicated to promoting global growth of e-commerce by contributing to a better understanding of the particular legal issues which arise from the cross border nature of the electronic medium"

    TRUSTe

    Global Information Infrastructure Commission This group backed "The Standard for Internet Commerce", described as: a uniform open and free standard for Electronic Commerce. ZiffDavis publisher initiative developed collaboratively with more than 200 top global Internet merchants, IT vendors, analysts, policymakers, consumer advocates, academics and journalists in an effort to establish a set of merchant practices and policies. Topics for Draft 1.0 include: merchant information, product availability, charges and fee information, warranties, product support, search capabilities, privacy, security, payment and billing, receipt of order notification, order status and history, shipping delivery and order execution, cancellations, returns, refunds and customer support. Launched in 12 July 1999, completion planned for December 1999. Global Information Infrastructure.

    Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe) An international non-governmental organization, managed by executives of 29 major enterprises in the United States, Europe and Asia, that promotes establishing global rules for electronic commerce over the Internet.

    GBDe member companies submit requests for legal arrangements for electronic commerce representing the interest of industries during the first GBDe convention held on 13 September 1999 in Paris, and these will be submitted to the government of each country.

    The following nine themes will be covered: (1) authentication and security, (2) consumer credibility, (3) contents/business communication, (4) inter-operability of information infrastructure and governance, (5) intellectual property, (6) control, (7) reliability, (8) protection of private data and (9) taxes/tariffs.

    Member companies include: Japan - Fujitsu Ltd., NEC Corp., Toshiba Corp., Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Bank Ltd., Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp; North America - IBM Corp., MCIWorldcom Inc., Nortel Networks Corp., Time Warner Inc. and Walt Disney Co.; Europe - France Telecom, Nokia of Finland, DaimlerChrysler Corp. of Germany and others.

    E-Commerce Follesdal, Coolconnect (check details)

    Electronic Commerce and EDI NRCCL's Law and Information Technology Links

    E-Commerce Project America Online

    Electronic Commerce by Michael Waidner

    Electronic Commerce Online Resources List maintained by Gilbert & Tobin, Australia

    Electronic Commerce at the International Chamber of Commerce

    Electronic Commerce Morino Institute

    European Internet Forum (including Globalisation and the Information Society; Digital signatures and encryption; Internet Governance)

    DTI ECommerce UK Department of Trade and Industry

    Electronic Commerce Library American Bar Association: "a research project funded by the European Commission's DG XIII, which seeks to set up a platform on the legal issues of electronic commerce with the objective of providing legal support to EC-funded RTD projects on any issue of law linked to electronic commerce, thereby stimulating expertise and increasing general awareness of the existing or recommended legal framework of electronic commerce."

    E-Comm Links E-Commerce Task Force, Canada

    Center for Law, Commerce and Technology School of Law University of Washington

    Electronic Frontiers Australia "representing Internet users concerned with on-line freedoms"

    The Commerce Standard The Standard for Internet Commerce is a uniform open and free standard for Electronic Commerce. ZiffDavis publisher initiative developed collaboratively with more than 200 top global Internet merchants, IT vendors, analysts, policymakers, consumer advocates, academics and journalists in an effort to establish a set of merchant practices and policies. Topics for Draft 1.0 include: merchant information, product availability, charges and fee information, warranties, product support, search capabilities, privacy, security, payment and billing, receipt of order notification, order status and history, shipping delivery and order execution, cancellations, returns, refunds and customer support. Launched in 12 July 1999, completion planned for December 1999. Global Information Infrastructure.

    Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe) An international non-governmental organization, managed by executives of 29 major enterprises in the United States, Europe and Asia, that promotes establishing global rules for electronic commerce over the Internet.

    GBDe member companies submit requests for legal arrangements for electronic commerce representing the interest of industries during the first GBDe convention held on 13 September 1999 in Paris, and these will be submitted to the government of each country.

    The following nine themes will be covered: (1) authentication and security, (2) consumer credibility, (3) contents/business communication, (4) inter-operability of information infrastructure and governance, (5) intellectual property, (6) control, (7) reliability, (8) protection of private data and (9) taxes/tariffs.

    Member companies include: Japan - Fujitsu Ltd., NEC Corp., Toshiba Corp., Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Bank Ltd., Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp; North America - IBM Corp., MCIWorldcom Inc., Nortel Networks Corp., Time Warner Inc. and Walt Disney Co.; Europe - France Telecom, Nokia of Finland, DaimlerChrysler Corp. of Germany and others.

    Guidelines of the Electronic Commerce and Consumer Protection Group [the "Group" appears to be gone] (America Online, AT&T, Dell Computer Group, IBM, Microsoft, Network Solutions, Time Warner Inc., Visa USA Inc)

     1.http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/un.electronic.commerce.model.law.1996/sisu_manifest.html

     2.http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/wta.electronic.commerce.1998/sisu_manifest.html

     3.http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/oecd.consumer.protection.in.electronic.commmerce.guideline.recommendation.1999/sisu_manifest.html


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