Title: Lex Mercatoria: Electronic Commerce and Encryption Pages
Creator: Lex Mercatoria
Rights: Copyright (C) 2004 Lex Mercatoria
Subject: electronic commerce, encryption
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Date: 2004
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Lex Mercatoria: Electronic Commerce and Encryption Pages 1 Electronic Commerce & Encryption 2 Electronic Commerce Documents 3 4 UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996)  
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5 WTO Declaration on Global Electronic Commerce (Adopted on 20 May 1998)  
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6 OECD Recommendation of the OECD Council Concerning Guidelines for Consumer Protection in the Context of Electronic Commerce (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) 1999  
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Summary Of Electronic Commerce And Digital Signature Legislation McBride Baker & Coles !pick 7 Technology-Neutral, Non-PKI, Minimalist E-Commerce Legislation 8 EFF "Privacy - Crypto - Export Restrictions, ITAR and EAR" Archive Electronic Frontier Foundation 9 eCommerce & Legal issues at <http://ecominfocenter.com/> eComInfoCenter.com 10 For other documents related to electronic commerce (such as EDI or cryptography) look under the relevant subject heading below. 11 Cryptography /Encryption 12 This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. 13 Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium 14 Cryptography applied in various ways and circumstances is essential for security and trust: 15 confidentiality 16 integrity 17 authentication 18 non-repudiation 19 In sum, read, cryptography impacts upon every aspect of considered e-commerce and private e-business relations. 20 #agreements Agreements 21 #groups Interest Groups 22 #aes AES Algorithm (Advanced Encryption Standard) 23 #reference Reference 24 #software Security Software 25 Crypto Law Survey Bert Jaap Koops 26 A Short History of Cryptography by Fred Cohen from Introductory Information Protection "a book about keeping people and organizations from harm caused by information. It requires little or mathematics and is suitable as a text for a graduate level or advanced undergraduate course." Fred Cohen & Associates 27 Why Cryptography Is Harder Than It Looks by Bruce Schneier CTO and Founder Counterpane Internet Security, Inc. 28 Agreements 29 Wassenaar Arrangement 30 Interest Groups 31 Center for Democracy and Technology 32 CryptoRights Foundation 33 Cyber Rights and Cyber Liberties UK on the Wassenaar Arrangement at Cyber Rights & Cyber Liberties 34 Electronic Frontier Foundation 35 International Cryptography Campaign 36 Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights 37 Global Internet Liberty Campaign 38 Free Congress Foundation 39 Echelonwatch 40 the American Civil Liberties Union 41 Electronic Frontiers Texas 42 Center for Media Education 43 Industry 44 Direct Marketing Association 45 TRUSTe 46 AES Algorithm (Advanced Encryption Standard) 47 NIST AES 48 AES Algorithm Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Development Effort, Computer Security Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST is an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department's Technology Administration see Encryption toolkit Advanced Encryption Standard of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 49 Report 50 "SPECIAL NOTE - Intellectual Property NIST reminds all interested parties that the adoption of AES is being conducted as an open standards-setting activity. Specifically, NIST has requested that all interested parties identify to NIST any patents or inventions that may be required for the use of AES. NIST hereby gives public notice that it may seek redress under the antitrust laws of the United States against any party in the future who might seek to exercise patent rights against any user of AES that have not been disclosed to NIST in response to this request for information." 51 Information Technology Laboratory 52 "Our goals are to strengthen the U.S. economy and improve the quality of life by providing the information technology industry and users with needed measurements and standards and to provide NIST with high quality information technology services." 53 Federal Information Processing Standards Publications 54 AES entry on Wikipedia 55 AES Winner announced October 2nd, 2000 56 Rijndael by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen   of Belgium. 57 publications Vincent Rijmen list DBLP Bibliography Server list 2everything 58 Joan Daemen list DBLP Bibliography Server list 2everything 59 Cryptix 60 The Rijndael algorithm is based on a block cipher algorithm (The Block Cipher Square Algorithm) described in an article in the October, 1997 issue of DDJ   61 6{ 5 Finalists, August 1999 62 Twofish 63 Rijndael 64 Serpent 65 MARS 66 RC6 67 Data Encryption Standard (DES) 68 Data Encryption Standard (DES) 69 Data Encryption Standard (DES), Triple DES, and Skipjack Algorithms 70 Triple DES Validation List 71 Overview Triple DES Encryption 72 Easy DES File Encryption Software for Organizations! 73 Strong Encryption Package Federal Information Processing 74 Announcing the Standard for Data Encryption Standard (DES) FIPS PUB 46-2, Supersedes FIPS PUB 46-1, 1988 January 22 Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 46-2 1993 December 30. 75 Reference & Links 76 The Crypto Link Farm - Encryption and Security-related Resources A few of (the many) mirrors auto-updated:   77 Security and Encryption-related Resources and Links by Peter Gutmann 78 Security pointers by Tom Dunigan 79 Security and Cryptography by Mark McCutcheon 80 Crypto - Cryptography resource on the Web by Matt Blaze 81 Cryptography and Security [+] by Ronald L. Rivest [+] 82 Crypto Page Paulo Barreto 83 Encryption and Security Tutorial 84 Cryptome 85 A Cryptographic Compendium   alternative location 86 EFF "Privacy - Crypto - Export Restrictions, ITAR and EAR" Archive Electronic Frontier Foundation 87 Cryptography Francis Litterio 88 Security & Cryptography standards by Michael Waidner 89 Security and Encryption * Quick Links 90 Encryption and Security Tutorial 91 Encryption, Security & Privacy News All E-Commerce 92 Cryptographic Algorithms Mach5 Cryptography Archives 93 What's Hot in Encryption - Bulletins EFF 94 Cryptography: The Study of Encryption Cryptography Francis Litterio 95 How electronic encryption works and how it will change your business Viacorp . com 96 Security Encryption PGP 97 GPG - The GNU Privacy Guard (Open PGP) 98 The Linux Encryption-HOWTO Homepage Linux Encryption HOWTO by Marc Mutz 99 OpenPGP (RFC2440) 100 Snake Oil Warning Signs: Encryption Software to Avoid an FAQ by Matt Curtin 101 Mitre CVE - Security Dictionary of Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures 102 Counterpane 103 Infosyssec - Security Portal for Information System Security Professionals 104 Security Software 105 Secure Point to Point Connection and File Sharing 106 Open Secure Shell - openSSH 107 Linux FreeS/WAN Secure point to point connection anywhere on the Internet, Strong Encryption. Developed outside the United States and not subject to US export restrictions. 108 Linux PPTP Server the PPTP Linux Server works with WinNT PPTP clients and C. S. Ananian's PPTP Linux clients. Virtual Private Networking technology enables the use the public Internet backbone for private data communications, encryption and encapsulation technology, permitting the carving out of a private channel/passageway through the Internet. 109 Bizee free download of V-ONE technology that permits secure connection with other users of the same technology. It performs authentication and uses 168-bit Triple DES encryption to secure e-commerce, as well as to encrypt data being transmitted as part of auctions, chat rooms, e-mail and classified advertisements. Adequate security has been a big obstacle to business-to-business commerce to date... July 1999 110 Gnutella 111 Gnut Linux/Unix console gnutella clone 112 Freenet (The Free Network Project Homepage) "Re-Wiring the Internet". Hosted by Source Forge "Freenet is a peer-to-peer network designed to allow the distribution of information over the Internet in an efficient manner, without fear of censorship. Freenet is completely decentralized, meaning that there is no person, computer, or organisation in control of Freenet or essential to its operation. This means that Freenet cannot be attacked like centralized peer-to-peer systems such as Napster. Freenet also employs intelligent routing and caching meaning that it learns to route requests more efficiently, automatically mirrors popular data, makes network flooding almost impossible, and moves data to where it is in greatest demand. All of this makes it much more efficient and scalable than systems such as Gnutella." 113 Mojo Nation claimed to be "a revolutionary new publishing and content-sharing network. [That]combines the flexibility of the marketplace and the distributed computing power of the Internet to go far beyond current filesharing systems... Mojo Nation is building an efficient, massively scalable and secure marketplace for distributors and consumers of digital content." 114 Wheres dot com Internet file sharing programs 115 Encrypted Files and Mail 116 #linux Linux Solutions 117 #commercial Commercial 118 UP - Ultimate Privacy 119 Speek Freely 120 Speak Free Secure fully encrypted Chat Program 121 Speak Freely Unix Windows 122 HushMail web based secure e-mail 123 Freedom "Untraceable" privacy system from ZeroKnowledge 124 1on1 Secure Mail The free-to-use service that requires the use of a sizable e-mail Windows PC client, which may be downloaded from the site or obtained on CD. 125 Mutt a pgp-aware mailer 126 SUIDNet "secure IRC network" 127 The International PGP Page 128 Top level home page for www.pgp.net 129 GPG - GNU Privacy Guard Download GPG which uses only free algorithms, and conforming to the OpenPGP standard 130 OpenPGP (RFC2440) 131 PGP Sites #fix 132 PGP DH v RSA FAQ 133 Linux Encryption Solutions 134 See also Linux Encryption 135 GPG - GNU Privacy Guard Download GPG which uses only free algorithms, and conforming to the OpenPGP standard 136 Project Aegypten (Free Software Sphinx-Clients) for Linux "The Sphinx project launched by German authorities aims to improve secure email exchange... Proprietary products are already on the way, but with the project ?gypten there is now also a Free Software solution going to be realized for popular mail user agents (sphinx-enabling KMail and mutt are essential goals)." 137 SuSE Linux (since v7.2) provides a Secure Crypto File System based on Twofish 138 The Linux Encryption-HOWTO Homepage Linux Encryption HOWTO by Marc Mutz 139 Encrypting Disks 140 Encrypting your Disks with Linux Doobee. R. Tzeck 141 PPDD requires recompiling (patching) the Linux kernel to allow strong encryption and a special device. Good documentation. 142 TCFS involves the running of a daemon which exports an encrypted filesystem as an NFS share. 143 Crypto Kernel Patch a patch for any given Linux kernel to make the loopback device use encryption algorithms. 144 BestCrypt Jetico 145 Steganography 146 Steghide 147 Outguess Steganography 148 StegFS - A Steganographic File System for Linux 149 Organizations 150 Internet Engineering Task Force 151 IEEE Computer Society 152 International Association for Cryptography Research 153 National Security Agency U.S.A. 154 National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST is an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department's Technology Administration 155 NCSA 156 DSS Defense Security Service 157 National Infrastructure Protection U.S. Department of Homeland Security 158 The Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office (CIAO) moved to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security 159 ANSI - American National Standards Institute 160 National Information Assurance Partnership 161 Office of Information Security 162 International Telecommunication Union 163 Internet Security Alliance a non-profit collaboration between EIA and Carnegie Mellon's CERT Coordination Center (CERT/CC), with a diverse and international membership 164 ETSI Telecom Standards 165 SET Secure Electronic Transactions 166 Association for Computing Machinery 167 SANS Institute 168 CSI - Computer Security Institute 169 TruSecure 170 CERT a center of Internet security expertise 171   172 Commercial 173 RSA Data Security RSA 174 RSA Security "the most trusted name in e-security" 175 RSA Security Incorporated owned key encryption patents (US) which expired September 26th 2000. 176 Baltimore Security 177 Other 178 UP - Ultimate Privacy 179 VeriSign 180 Speek Freely 181 Speak Free Secure fully encrypted Chat Program 182 Speak Freely Unix Windows 183 Crypto-Central SHA algorithm MD5 etc. Delphi: Advanced encryption Components 184 Biometrics 185 The Biometric Consortium 186 The International Biometric Society 187 Biometrics A Journal of the International Biometric Society 188 Biometric Consortium 189 Biometrics 190 Biometric Encryption information 191 The Bio API 192 VeriSign 193 Quantum physics cryptography 194 NTT 195 Almaden Research Lab 196 Los Alamos 197 British Telecom 198 Digital Signatures 199 This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. 200 Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium 201 UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures (2001) 202 Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 2000, United States 203 is law, granting (from 1st October, 2000) electronic signatures the same binding legal status as hand-written signatures and thereby making the signing of enforceable contracts online possible on the click of a mouse, with all that that may imply. 204 Bill 205 "A bill to regulate interstate commerce by electronic means by permitting and encouraging the continued expansion of electronic commerce through the operation of free market forces, and for other purposes" 206 Interdisciplinary Centre for Law & Information Technology, ICRI 207 Legal Aspects of the E-Revolution (archived site) European Commission - Information Society Directorate-General 208 Internet Law & Policy Forum "dedicated to promoting the global growth of e-commerce by contributing to a better understanding of the particular legal issues which arise from the cross border nature of the electronic medium" 209 Links on Law, Cryptography and Electronic Communications Prepared by Juan A. Avellan of the Information Technology Law Unit, Queen Mary and Westfield College 210 Law Center on Electronic Signatures 211 Global E-Commerce Law Baker & McKenzie 212 The CyberNotary Committee Science and Technology Section of the American Bar Assocation co Chairs: Theodore S. Barassi & Joseph H. Alhadeff 213 Digital Notary Systems American Bar Association 214 Digital Signatures Guidelines American Bar Association 215 Electronic Contracts and Electronic Commercial Documents 216 This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. 217 Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium 218 ebXML The UN and OASIS effort: "Creating a Single Global Electronic Market" 219 Monthly Archives for ebxml-awareness 220 Electronic Business XML Initiative (ebXML) The XML Cover Pages by Robin Cover   221 XAML (Transaction Authority Markup Language) "vendor neutral that enables the coordination and processing of online transactions in the rapidly developing in the rapidly emerging world of XML web services" backed by Hewlet Packard, IBM, Oracle, and Sun. XAML Cover Page FAQ 222 Bolero * 223 Bolero backed by about 120 banks and logistics firms is trying to set up a global standard that would be accepted by governments, shippers, and banks. In doing so the plan to tackle such age old legal concepts as the bill of lading. Bolero plans to use an encrypted communication network to shuffle documents around the world, a process that's now hampered by incompatible computer systems and bureaucrats. Bolero is owned 50-50 by the 224 eOriginal Electronic Original (Steven Bisbee). From 1999 225 "eOriginal, Inc. has developed and markets, under two U.S. patents, a fully integrated transaction system that delivers the trusted means for producing electronic documents that are unique, secure and reliable for all business and legal purposes. The company's product suite, marketed as eOriginal, enables the creation of the Electronic Original." 226 EDI - Electronic Data Interchange 227 This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. 228 Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium 229 Electronic Commerce and EDI at NRCCL's Law and Information Technology Links Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law NRCCL 230 check UNECE for the United Nations/EDIFACT Standards. 231 Revised articles of draft uniform rules on the legal aspects of electronic data interchange 232 United Nations Revised draft model statutory provisions on the legal aspects of electronic data interchange 233 X12 Transaction Set Index Version 3040 234 Harbinger Now holds Premonos materials 235 UNeTradeS.net 236 Electronic Commerce & Electronic Data Interchange: Internet Resources Golden Gate University Library Guide 237 Electronic Payments 238 Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium 239 Solutions 240 NACHA - Electronic Payments Association "NACHA is a not-for-profit trade association that develops operating rules and business practices for the Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network and for other areas of electronic payments. ? NACHA activities and initiatives facilitate the adoption of electronic payments in the areas of Internet commerce, electronic bill payment and presentment (EBPP), financial electronic data interchange (EDI), international payments, electronic checks, electronic benefits transfer (EBT) and student lending. We also promote the use of electronic payment products and services, such as Direct Deposit and Direct Payment. 241 NACHA represents more than 12,000 financial institutions through our network of regional ACH associations.? We have over 600 members in our seven industry councils and corporate Affiliate Membership program." 242 Internet Council - NACHA 243 Project ACTION "a program to develop a payment product for Internet transactions utilizing Automated Clearing House (ACH) credits" 244 E-Cash Technologies Inc. "global software solutions that extend and enhance physical-world payment methods" 245 Cybercash "VeriSign and CyberCash join forces to offer complete e-commerce solutions" 246 Globeset Trinitech "securing payment in the digital age" 247 Mobey Forum "a financial industry-driven forum, whose mission is to encourage the use of mobile technology in financial services ... - such as payment, remote banking and brokerage" 248 Paypal Confinity. Paypal now Nokia approved allows you to make instant payments to anyone with a cell phone, two-way pager, or handheld device, such as the Palm? organizer. Permits such things as the settlement of debts, borrowing of cash and splitting of bills/ expenses without the hassle of going to ATMs or keeping track of debts. Paypal is free and works seamlessly with your existing credit card and bank account. PayPal? software can be "beamed" to your friend or business associate who can then be "beamed" money instantly. The system charges your credit card when you next sync your device, and your friend can register later at PayPal.com. 249 E-Commerce Guide 250 BigStep Build your own web-based e-commerce site, free service 251 ECML Electronic Commerce Modeling Language (ECML) is to be a universal format for wallets and merchant web sites. ECML uses a set of uniform field names to streamlines the process by which merchants collect electronic data for shipping, billing, and payment. Its development is a collaboration between: American Express, AOL, Compaq, CyberCash, IBM, MasterCard, Microsoft, SETCo, Sun Microsystems, Transactor Networks, Trintech, and Visa. 18/06/1999 252 FpML FpML, an XML-based markup language that allows for Net-based integration of services such as electronic trading and risk analysis backed by IBM, PricewaterhouseCoopers and J.P. Morgan. 18/06/1999 253 WorldPay 254 NetBanx 255 Payment mechanisms designed for the Internet by Michael Peirce 256 Digital Money, Credit Cards, and Electronic Payment Systems 257 Page of links to resources on Electronic Money or E-Money by Roy Davies. 258 DigiCash (went under) Electronic Money (That's What I Want) (Read up on David Chaum) Article by Steven Levy for HotWired, December 1994. David Chaum Publications How much do you trust Big Brother? interview of David Chaum, 1997 & the Mark Twain Bank 259 CyberCash 260 CheckFree "the undisputed leader in moving money electronically" 261 VeriFone 262 Millicent (Digital / Compaq) 263 Open Market 264 MasterCard 265 Visa 266 Hyper Mart free service with advertising part of the Go2Net network 267 Sitematic monthly charges 268 MindSpring Biz monthly charges 269 MS Solutions for small businesses 270 E-Commerce servers 271 Discusion 272 This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. 273 Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium 274 W3C - Electronic Commerce Interest Group? W3C has closed its Ecommerce and Micropayment Activity, but through a number of activities W3C is committed to key factors for success in the evolution of Electronic Commerce. 275 Guide to Online Payments US Federal Trade Commission 276 NACHA - Electronic Payments Association NACHA is a not-for-profit trade association that develops operating rules and business practices for the Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network and for other areas of electronic payments. NACHA represents more than 12,000 financial institutions through our network of regional ACH associations.? We have over 600 members in our seven industry councils and corporate Affiliate Membership program.? 277 Electronic Payments Forum 278 Electronic Money, or E-Money, and Digital Cash links by Roy Davies 279 Epayment Links Institute for eCommerce, Carnegie Mellon University 280 Electronic Commerce, Payment Systems, and Security links by Michael Waidner 281 Internet Funds Transfer Services - Electronic Payments Elsop - Electronic Software Publishing Corporation 282 A Bibliography of Electronic Payment Information 283 Links related to Smart Cards and Electronic Payment Systems 284 Payment Systems Information Resources Federal Reserve Bank of New York 285 United States Government Electronic Commerce Policy 286 European ePayments Observatory 287 The Future of Money edited by Robert Knautz, 1997 Policy Spotlight 288 Payment mechanisms designed for the Internet by Michael Peirce 289 Epayment Solutions - page sponsored by IBM 290 Joint Electronic Payments Protocol (JEPI) to make it easier for consumers to use multiple payment systems from Web browsers: 291 World Wide Web Consortium 292 CommerceNet 293 Millicent from Digital Equipment Corporation Information 294 Microsoft: Passport 295 Electronic Money / Internet Payment Systems 296 Network Payment Mechanisms and Digital Cash by Michael Peirce 297 Central Banking Resource Center Mark Bernkopf 298 e$ Page Robert Hettinga 299 Debt, Money and Ancient Meme 300 21st Century Banking Alert Page also Additional Online Resources and BancMail Archive at Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver and Jacobson 301 A Bibliography of Electronic Payment Information 302 Writings and Links to them 303 E-Commerce Times News 304 A Bibliography of Electronic Payment Systems 305 Alternative Money Systems New Civilization Network 306 Money - Past, Present & Future Sources of Information on Monetary History, Contemporary Developments, and the Prospects for Electronic Money maintained by Roy Davies 307 The Future of Money in the Information Age by the Cato Institute, 1997. 308 The Surprise Weapon: Private Enterprise Money by E. C. Riegel, 1944. 309 Array including the Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce and Journal of Internet Purchasing 310 The Surprise Weapon: Private Enterprise Money by E. C. Riegel, 1944. 311 Implications for Central Banks of the Development of Electronic Money 11th November 1996 by the Central Banker's Central Bank the Bank for International Settlement, Basle, Switzerland. 312 Crypto-Anarchy and Virtual Communities by Timothy C. May (1995) 313 Commerce Related Sites including Banking and Finance 314 Authentication Solutions - Virtual Identities 315 Liberty Alliance Project (Sun etc.) 316 Passport Passport, Hailstorm, .Net etc. Microsoft 317 Oblix | Identity-Based Security Solutions(TM) 318 The DotGNU Project 319 Linux-PAM "Pluggable Authentication Modules for Linux is a suite of shared libraries that enable the local system administrator to choose how applications authenticate users." 320 PAM - Pluggable Authentication Modules 321 documentation for Linux-PAM 322 PAM - FAQ 323 PAM 324 User Authentication HOWTO "Explains how user and group information is stored and how users are authenticated on a Linux system (PAM), and how to secure your system's user authentication." by Peter Hernberg 325 Government and other Documents: Stands/Approaches to Electronic Commerce 326 This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. 327 Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium 328 Electronic commerce in the WTO 329 Electronic Commerce at the International Chamber of Commerce 330 United States Government Electronic Commerce Policy 331 International Sites 332 A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce 333 A Framework For Global Electronic Commerce 334 W3C Activities Related to the US "Framework for Global Electronic Commerce" 335 Electronic Commerce and the European Union 336 Legal Aspects of the E-Revolution European Commission - Information Society Directorate-General 337 WTO's work programme on electronic commerce 338 Electronic Commerce and the European Union ECLIP 339 EU Initiative in Electronic Commerce 1997 340 Wassenaar Arrangement 341 Ecommerce at the Global Information Infrastructure Commission of the Center for Strategic & International Studies 342 This group backed "The Commerce Standard", described as: a uniform open and free standard for Electronic Commerce. ZiffDavis publisher initiative developed collaboratively with more than 200 top global Internet merchants, IT vendors, analysts, policymakers, consumer advocates, academics and journalists in an effort to establish a set of merchant practices and policies. Topics for Draft 1.0 include: merchant information, product availability, charges and fee information, warranties, product support, search capabilities, privacy, security, payment and billing, receipt of order notification, order status and history, shipping delivery and order execution, cancellations, returns, refunds and customer support. Launched in 12 July 1999, completion planned for December 1999. Global Information Infrastructure. 343 Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe) An international non-governmental organization, managed by executives of 29 major enterprises in the United States, Europe and Asia, that promotes establishing global rules for electronic commerce over the Internet. 344 GBDe member companies submit requests for legal arrangements for electronic commerce representing the interest of industries during the first GBDe convention held on 13 September 1999 in Paris, and these will be submitted to the government of each country. 345 The following nine themes will be covered: (1) authentication and security, (2) consumer credibility, (3) contents/business communication, (4) inter-operability of information infrastructure and governance, (5) intellectual property, (6) control, (7) reliability, (8) protection of private data and (9) taxes/tariffs. 346 Member companies include: Japan - Fujitsu Ltd., NEC Corp., Toshiba Corp., Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Bank Ltd., Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp; North America - IBM Corp., MCIWorldcom Inc., Nortel Networks Corp., Time Warner Inc. and Walt Disney Co.; Europe - France Telecom, Nokia of Finland, DaimlerChrysler Corp. of Germany and others. 347 Cybercrime 348 Convention on Cybercrime Budapest, 2001, Council of Europe 349 Other COE Pages related to the Convention on Cybercrime 350 Draft Convention on Cyber-crime (Draft N? 19) politechbot 351 Privacy 352 See also Linux Encryption 353 Electronic Privacy Information Center 354 P3P WWW Consortium 355 Encryption, Security & Privacy News All E-Commerce 356 What's Hot in Encryption - Bulletins EFF 357 GPG - The GNU Privacy Guard (Open PGP) 358 Privacy Foundation 359 NoN-Privacy / Security? 360 Echelon Watch administered by ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) in conjunction with the Free Congress Foundation, the Electronic Privacy Information Center, Cyber-Rights and Cyber-Liberties (UK) and the Omega Foundation. 361 Echelon Watch Cyber-Rights & Cyber-Liberties (UK) 362 Statewatch monitoring the state and civil liberties in the European Union 363 Interest Groups & Campaigns 364 This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. 365 Elsewhere off this site: Electronic Commerce compendium 366 Wassenaar Arrangement 367 Center for Democracy and Technology 368 Center for Media Education 369 Cyber Rights and Cyber Liberties U.K a non-profit civil liberties organisation founded by Yaman Akdeniz. Information on Wassenaar and on the UK Freedom of information Files 370 Distributed.Net 371 Electronic Freedom Frontier 372 Electronic Frontier Foundation 373 Electronic Privacy Information Center 374 EU Freedom Campaign* 375 Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights 376 CryptoRights Foundation 377 Global Internet Liberty Campaign 378 International Cryptography Campaign 379 Echelonwatch 380 The Internet Law and Policy Forum "dedicated to promoting global growth of e-commerce by contributing to a better understanding of the particular legal issues which arise from the cross border nature of the electronic medium" 381 Free Congress Foundation 382 the American Civil Liberties Union 383 Center for Media Education 384 Security Forum 385 Industry 386 Direct Marketing Association 387 Interactive Services Association 388 TRUSTe 389 Global Information Infrastructure Commission This group backed "The Standard for Internet Commerce", described as: a uniform open and free standard for Electronic Commerce. ZiffDavis publisher initiative developed collaboratively with more than 200 top global Internet merchants, IT vendors, analysts, policymakers, consumer advocates, academics and journalists in an effort to establish a set of merchant practices and policies. Topics for Draft 1.0 include: merchant information, product availability, charges and fee information, warranties, product support, search capabilities, privacy, security, payment and billing, receipt of order notification, order status and history, shipping delivery and order execution, cancellations, returns, refunds and customer support. Launched in 12 July 1999, completion planned for December 1999. Global Information Infrastructure. 390 Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe) An international non-governmental organization, managed by executives of 29 major enterprises in the United States, Europe and Asia, that promotes establishing global rules for electronic commerce over the Internet. 391 GBDe member companies submit requests for legal arrangements for electronic commerce representing the interest of industries during the first GBDe convention held on 13 September 1999 in Paris, and these will be submitted to the government of each country. 392 The following nine themes will be covered: (1) authentication and security, (2) consumer credibility, (3) contents/business communication, (4) inter-operability of information infrastructure and governance, (5) intellectual property, (6) control, (7) reliability, (8) protection of private data and (9) taxes/tariffs. 393 Member companies include: Japan - Fujitsu Ltd., NEC Corp., Toshiba Corp., Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Bank Ltd., Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp; North America - IBM Corp., MCIWorldcom Inc., Nortel Networks Corp., Time Warner Inc. and Walt Disney Co.; Europe - France Telecom, Nokia of Finland, DaimlerChrysler Corp. of Germany and others. 394 Electronic Commerce Resource Sites 395 eComInfoCenter.com 396 Summary Of Electronic Commerce And Digital Signature Legislation McBride Baker & Coles !pick 397 E-Business Research Center CIO 398 E-Commerce Follesdal, Coolconnect (check details) 399 Technology-Neutral, Non-PKI, Minimalist E-Commerce Legislation 400 E-Commerce News Archive 401 Electronic Commerce and EDI NRCCL's Law and Information Technology Links 402 E-Commerce Project America Online 403 Electronic Commerce by Michael Waidner 404 Electronic Commerce Online Resources List maintained by Gilbert & Tobin, Australia 405 Electronic commerce section of the WTO website 406 WTO's work programme on electronic commerce 407 Electronic Commerce at the International Chamber of Commerce 408 US Government Ecommerce Policy 409 Ecommerce at the Global Information Infrastructure Commission of the Center for Strategic & International Studies 410 Electronic Commerce Morino Institute 411 Electronic Commerce and the European Union 412 European Internet Forum (including Globalisation and the Information Society; Digital signatures and encryption; Internet Governance) 413 DTI ECommerce UK Department of Trade and Industry 414 DTI E-Commerce Directive 415 Communications and information industries 416 Electronic Commerce Library American Bar Association: "a research project funded by the European Commission's DG XIII, which seeks to set up a platform on the legal issues of electronic commerce with the objective of providing legal support to EC-funded RTD projects on any issue of law linked to electronic commerce, thereby stimulating expertise and increasing general awareness of the existing or recommended legal framework of electronic commerce." 417 E-Comm Links E-Commerce Task Force, Canada 418 Center for Law, Commerce and Technology School of Law University of Washington 419 Electronic Frontiers Australia "representing Internet users concerned with on-line freedoms" 420 The Commerce Standard The Standard for Internet Commerce is a uniform open and free standard for Electronic Commerce. ZiffDavis publisher initiative developed collaboratively with more than 200 top global Internet merchants, IT vendors, analysts, policymakers, consumer advocates, academics and journalists in an effort to establish a set of merchant practices and policies. Topics for Draft 1.0 include: merchant information, product availability, charges and fee information, warranties, product support, search capabilities, privacy, security, payment and billing, receipt of order notification, order status and history, shipping delivery and order execution, cancellations, returns, refunds and customer support. Launched in 12 July 1999, completion planned for December 1999. Global Information Infrastructure. 421 Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe) An international non-governmental organization, managed by executives of 29 major enterprises in the United States, Europe and Asia, that promotes establishing global rules for electronic commerce over the Internet. 422 GBDe member companies submit requests for legal arrangements for electronic commerce representing the interest of industries during the first GBDe convention held on 13 September 1999 in Paris, and these will be submitted to the government of each country. 423 The following nine themes will be covered: (1) authentication and security, (2) consumer credibility, (3) contents/business communication, (4) inter-operability of information infrastructure and governance, (5) intellectual property, (6) control, (7) reliability, (8) protection of private data and (9) taxes/tariffs. 424 Member companies include: Japan - Fujitsu Ltd., NEC Corp., Toshiba Corp., Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Bank Ltd., Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp; North America - IBM Corp., MCIWorldcom Inc., Nortel Networks Corp., Time Warner Inc. and Walt Disney Co.; Europe - France Telecom, Nokia of Finland, DaimlerChrysler Corp. of Germany and others. 425 Guidelines of the Electronic Commerce and Consumer Protection Group [the "Group" appears to be gone] (America Online, AT&T, Dell Computer Group, IBM, Microsoft, Network Solutions, Time Warner Inc., Visa USA Inc) 426 Endnotes 427 Endnotes 428 Metadata SiSU Metadata, document information Manifest SiSU Manifest, alternative outputs etc.