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Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air (Montreal, 28 May 1999)


Chapter 1 - General Provisions

Article 1 - Scope of application

Article 2 - Carriage performed by State and carriage of postal items

Chapter II - Documentation and Duties of the Parties Relating to the Carriage of Passengers, Baggage and Cargo

Article 3 - Passengers and baggage

Article 4 - Cargo

Article 5 - Contents of air waybill or cargo receipt

Article 6 - Document relating to the nature of the cargo

Article 7 - Description of air waybill

Article 8 - Documentation for multiple packages

Article 9 - Non-compliance with documentary requirements

Article 10 - Responsibility for particulars of documentation

Article 11 - Evidentiary value of documentation

Article 12 - Right of disposition of cargo

Article 13 - Delivery of the cargo

Article 14 - Enforcement of the rights of consignor and consignee

Article 15 - Relations of consignor and consignee or mutual relations of third parties

Article 16 - Formalities of customs, police or other public authorities

Chapter III - Liability of the Carrier and Extent of Compensation for Damage

Article 17 - Death and injury of passengers - damage to baggage

Article 18 - Damage to cargo

Article 19 - Delay

Article 20 - Exoneration

Article 21 - Compensation in case of death or injury of passengers

Article 22 - Limits of liability in relation to delay, baggage and cargo

Article 23 - Conversion of monetary units

Article 24 - Review of limits

Article 25 - Stipulation on limits

Article 26 - Invalidity of contractual provisions

Article 27 - Freedom to contract

Article 28 - Advance payments

Article 29 - Basis of claims

Article 30 - Servants, agents - aggregation of claims

Article 31 - Timely notice of complaints

Article 32 - Death of person liable

Article 33 - Jurisdiction

Article 34 - Arbitration

Article 35 - Limitation of actions

Article 36 - Successive carriage

Article 37 - Right of recourse against third parties

Chapter IV - Combined Carriage

Article 38 - Combined carriage

Chapter V - Carriage by Air Performed by a Person other than the Contracting Carrier

Article 39 - Contracting carrier - actual carrier

Article 40 - Respective liability of contracting and actual carriers

Article 41 - Mutual liability

Article 42 - Addressee of complaints and instructions

Article 43 - Servants and agents

Article 44 - Aggregation of damages

Article 45 - Addressee of claims

Article 46 - Additional jurisdiction

Article 47 - Invalidity of contractual provisions

Article 48 - Mutual relations of contracting and actual carriers

Chapter VI - Other Provisions

Article 49 - Mandatory application

Article 50 - Insurance

Article 51 - Carriage performed in extraordinary circumstances

Article 52 - Definition of days

Chapter VII - Final Clauses

Article 53 - Signature, ratification and entry into force

Article 54 - Denunciation

Article 55 - Relationship with other Warsaw Convention instruments

Article 56 - States with more than one system of law

Article 57 - Reservations


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Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air (Montreal, 28 May 1999)



RECOGNIZING the significant contribution of the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air signed in Warsaw on 12 October 1929, hereinafter referred to as the "Warsaw Convention", and other related instruments to the harmonization of private international air law;

RECOGNIZING the need to modernize and consolidate the Warsaw Convention and related instruments;

RECOGNIZING the importance of ensuring protection of the interests of consumers in international carriage by air and the need for equitable compensation based on the principle of restitution;

REAFFIRMING the desirability of an orderly development of international air transport operations and the smooth flow of passengers, baggage and cargo in accordance with the principles and objectives of the Convention on International Civil Aviation, done at Chicago on 7 December 1944;

CONVINCED that collective State action for further harmonization and codification of certain rules governing international carriage by air through a new Convention is the most adequate means of achieving an equitable balance of interests;


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