<< ~/. >>
Lex Mercatoria -->
 This text's sub- 
 Table of Contents 

Information Technology



<< ~/. >>


This list does not attempt to be exhaustive. It provides links to sources we have found particularly useful, and to other more comprehensive lists of sources on the subject. Any references to articles on related topics are to provide background into the technologies mentioned.


List Cable

List Fiber Optics

List Power Lines

List Wireless

ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

ADSL and DSL lite making use telephone lines for high bandwidth transmission. ADSL transmission is considerably faster than ISDN and claimed to be a bit faster than cable. DSL a lower end development of the technology, is easier to install but provides lower bandwidth, however it is claimed that even this is faster than cable. It is probably also more expensive however.

See for example:

External Link  Study: DSL speeds can smoke cable By John Borland and Jim Davis Staff Writers, CNET News.com May 17, 1999, 4:45 p.m. PT "In a broadband drag race between cable modem and DSL access, even low-grade DSL is as much as 12 percent faster than cable--at least during consumers' prime-time evening hours, according to a new study released today."

External Link  G.Lite Offers DSL Power: Standard will push high-speed Net access and create demand for faster PCs. by Nancy Weil, IDG News Service, Boston Bureau June 24, 1999, 11:00 a.m. PT


Cable offers the potential for high bandwidth together with 24 hour Net access at a modest fixed rate. The offering is most developed in the United States at present.

Most cable modems connect to your PC via an Ethernet connection and so require the installation of an Ethernet card in your PC.

The most used type of cable modem is the two-way hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) modems that can theoretically achieve down-load speeds in the 3-Mbps to 10-Mbps range with upload speeds of around 128 Kbps to 10 Mbps.

The other type being the one-way coaxial modem with an average 2-Mbps down-load speed and requiring a dial-up modem for the upload of data.

External Link  Digital Nation sponsored sites: External Link  High Speed Access

External Link  Cable Modems

DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Internet Specification) a cable modem standard.

External Link  Cable Modems March 31, 1999 by Les Freed and Frank J. Derfler, Jr, ZDNet


External Link  Time Article

External Link  Broadband game just beginning Fri, 07 May 1999 08:01:26 GMT Michael Fitzgerald and Margaret Kane, ZDNet

Fiber Optics

Providing the potential for the fastest access and its always on.

See for example:

External Link  Nortel to Launch World's Fastest Net Technology 04 May 1999, 12:14 PM CST By Martin Stone, Newsbytes. "The new technology is called OPTera 1600G, an optical amplification system providing enough fiber capacity and speed to transport the entire 4 million book collection of the US Library of Congress from Washington, D.C., to Los Angeles in seconds through one single strand of fiber, the company claims."

Power Lines

Tests of the use of power cables have been carried out successfully in a number of countries. It appears to offer a near ubiquitous solution to high bandwidth Net access - at speeds far in excess of cable and available from a source as nearby as your closest electrical socket.


Wireless technologies are improving rapidly offering high bandwidth with rapidly declinging costs (in certain regions of the world) making this an increasingly viable alternative to cable with a number of advantages, though always on fixed tariffs are probably not amongst them.

External Link  Symbian A partnership to prevent anyone (read Microsoft) from dominating the wireless industry. Partners include Nokia (Finland), Ericsson (Sweden), Motorola (United States) and Matsushita (Japan).

Lex Mercatoria -->
 This text's sub- 
 Table of Contents 

Lex Mercatoria -->

( International Trade/Commercial Law & e-Commerce Monitor )

W3 since October 3 1993
1993 - 2008

started @The University of Tromsø, Norway
hosted by The University of Oslo, Norway
in fellowship with The Institute of International Commercial Law,
Pace University, White Plains, New York, U.S.A.


Ralph Amissah


© Ralph Amissah

presentations' look and feel
generated by
SiSU on Linux & Ruby (on Debian) - better ways, well actually, Way Better!
SiSU Scribe

© Ralph Amissah 1997, current 2008, of SiSU www.jus.uio.no/sisu the program, the markup syntax, and exemplified resulting document presentations look and feel, including text object numbering system.
All Rights Reserved.

© Ralph Amissah
1993 - 2004
All Rights Reserved
w3 since October 3 1993

using Ruby
on the Debian/Gnu/Linux
software infrastructure
think the usual GPL (or OSS) suspects

Get With the Future
<<Way Better!>>

Local Search using Google

lm www

Advanced Google Search of this site

If you have problems viewing pages on this site please update your browser:

Epiphany  Epiphany® |

Galeon  Galeon® |

MS I-Explorer I-Explorer® |

Konqueror Konqueror® |

Mozilla Mozilla Firefox(Firefox)® |

Netscape Netscape® |

Opera Opera®

for console/text viewing:

elinks |


for lightweight gui (X) viewing try:

Dillo |

Epiphany  Epiphany® |

Firefox Firefox® 

& for pdf viewings of this site we recommend stand alone viewers
(rather than web browser plugins):

Adobe Acrobat Reader Acrobat Reader®  |

 GhostView® , GV® & GSview®  |

Xpdf  Xpdf®