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LCIA Arbitration Rules
(adopted to take effect from 1 January 1998, that is, for arbitrations commencing on or after 1 January 1998)


Article 1 - The Request for Arbitration

Article 2 - The Response

Article 3 - The LCIA Court and Registrar

Article 4 - Notices and Periods of Time

Article 5 - Formation of the Arbitral Tribunal

Article 6 - Nationality of Arbitrators

Article 7 - Party and Other Nominations

Article 8 - Three or More Parties

Article 9 - Expedited Formation

Article 10 - Revocation of Arbitrator's Appointment

Article 11 - Nomination and Replacement of Arbitrators

Article 12 - Majority Power to Continue Proceedings

Article 13 - Communications between Parties and the Arbitral Tribunal

Article 14 - Conduct of the Proceedings

Article 15 - Submission of Written Statements and Documents

Article 16 - Seat of Arbitration and Place of Hearings

Article 17 - Language of Arbitration

Article 18 - Party Representation

Article 19 - Hearings

Article 20 - Witnesses

Article 21 - Experts to the Arbitral Tribunal

Article 22 - Additional Powers of the Arbitral Tribunal

Article 23 - Jurisdiction of the Arbitral Tribunal

Article 24 - Deposits

Article 25 - Interim and Conservatory Measures

Article 26 - The Award

Article 27 - Correction of Awards and Additional Awards

Article 28 - Arbitration and Legal Costs

Article 29 - Decisions by the LCIA Court

Article 30 - Confidentiality

Article 32 - General Rules

Article 31 - Exclusion of Liability

Recommended Arbitration Clauses

Future Disputes

Existing Disputes




SiSU Metadata, document information


SiSU Manifest, alternative outputs etc.

LCIA Arbitration Rules - (adopted to take effect from 1 January 1998)

London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA)

copy @ Lex Mercatoria

LCIA Arbitration Rules
(adopted to take effect from 1 January 1998, that is, for arbitrations commencing on or after 1 January 1998)

Article 20 - Witnesses

20.1 Before any hearing, the Arbitral Tribunal may require any party to give notice of the identity of each witness that party wishes to call (including rebuttal witnesses), as well as the subject matter of that witness's testimony, its content and its relevance to the issues in the arbitration.

20.2 The Arbitral Tribunal may also determine the time, manner and form in which such materials should be exchanged between the parties and presented to the Arbitral Tribunal: and it has a discretion to allow, refuse, or limit the appearance of witnesses (whether witness of fact or expert witness).

20.3 Subject to any order otherwise by the Arbitral Tribunal, the testimony of a witness may be presented by a party in written form, either as a signed statement or as a sworn affidavit.

20.4 Subject to Article 14.1 and 14.2. any party may request that a witness, on whose testimony another party seeks to rely, should attend for oral questioning at a hearing before the Arbitral Tribunal. If the Arbitral Tribunal orders that other party to produce the witness and the witness fails to attend the oral hearing without good cause, the Arbitral Tribunal may place such weight on the written testimony (or exclude the same altogether) as it considers appropriate in the circumstances of the case.

20.5 Any witness who gives oral evidence at a hearing before the Arbitral Tribunal may be questioned by each of the parties under the control of the Arbitral Tribunal. The Arbitral Tribunal may put questions at any stage of his evidence.

20.6 Subject to the mandatory provisions of any applicable law, it shall not be improper for any party or its legal representatives to interview any witness or potential witness for the purpose of presenting his testimony in written form or producing him as an oral witness.

20.7 Any individual intending to testify to the Arbitral Tribunal on any issue of fact or expertise shall be treated as a witness under these Rules notwithstanding that the individual is a party to the arbitration or was or is an officer, employee or shareholder of any party.

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( International Trade/Commercial Law & e-Commerce Monitor )

W3 since October 3 1993
1993 - 2010

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Ralph Amissah

Lex Mercatoria