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United Nations Convention on the Liability of Operators of Transport Terminals in International Trade (United Nations 1994)


Article 1 - Definitions

Article 2 - Scope of application

Article 3 - Period of responsibility

Article 4 - Issuance of document

Article 5 - Basis of liability

Article 6 - Limits of liability

Article 7 - Application to non-contractual claims

Article 8 - Loss of right to limit liability

Article 9 - Special rules on dangerous goods

Article 10 - Rights of security in goods

Article 11 - Notice of loss, damage or delay

Article 12 - Limitation of actions

Article 13 - Contractual stipulations

Article 14 - Interpretation of the Convention

Article 15 - International transport conventions

Article 16 - Unit of account

Final Clauses

Article 17 - Depositary

Article 18 - Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval, accession

Article 19 - Application to territorial units

Article 20 - Effect of declaration

Article 21 - Reservations

Article 22 - Entry into force

Article 23 - Revision and amendment

Article 24 - Revision of limitation amounts

Article 25 - Denunciation

[Post Provisions]

[Post Clauses (If any: Signed; Witnessed; Done; Authentic Texts; & Deposited Clauses)]

Note by the Secretariat:


A. Policies underlying the Convention

Need for mandatory liability rules

Gaps in liability regimes left by international conventions

Need for harmonization and modernization

Consequences and benefits of the Convention

B. Preparatory work

[Preparatory work]

C. Salient features of the Convention


Period of responsibility

Issuance of document

Basis of liability

Limits of liability

Application to non-contractual claims

Loss of right to limit liability

Rights of security in goods

Limitation of actions

Final clauses


SiSU Metadata, document information


SiSU Manifest, alternative outputs etc.

United Nations Convention on the Liability of Operators of Transport Terminals in International Trade (United Nations 1994)

United Nations (UN)

copy @ Lex Mercatoria

United Nations Convention on the Liability of Operators of Transport Terminals in International Trade (United Nations 1994)

Article 12 - Limitation of actions

(1) Any action under this Convention is time-barred if judicial or arbitral proceedings have not been instituted within a period of two years.

(2) The limitation period commences:

(a) On the day the operator hands over the goods or part thereof to, or places them at the disposal of, a person entitled to take delivery of them, or

(b) In cases of total loss of the goods, on the day the person entitled to make a claim receives notice from the operator that the goods are lost, or on the day that person may treat the goods as lost in accordance with paragraph (4) of article 5, whichever is earlier.

(3) The day on which the limitation period commences is not included in the period.

(4) The operator may at any time during the running of the limitation period extend the period by a notice to the claimant. The period may be further extended by another notice or notices.

(5) A recourse action by a carrier or another person against the operator may be instituted even after the expiration of the limitation period provided for in the preceding paragraphs if it is instituted within 90 days after the carrier or other person has been held liable in an action against himself or has settled the claim upon which such action was based and if, within a reasonable period of time after the filing of a claim against a carrier or other person that may result in a recourse action against the operator, notice of the filing of such a claim has been given to the operator.

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( International Trade/Commercial Law & e-Commerce Monitor )

W3 since October 3 1993
1993 - 2010

started @The University of Tromsø, Norway, 1993
hosted by The University of Oslo, Norway, since 1998
in fellowship with The Institute of International Commercial Law,
Pace University, White Plains, New York, U.S.A.



Ralph Amissah

Lex Mercatoria