NORDEM publishes report on the Zimbabwe constitution process

NORDEM has published the report "The Constitutional History and the 2013 Referendum of Zimbabwe" written by Kåre Vollan, an election expert deployed by NORDEM. Vollan has followed the electoral and constitutional processes in Zimbabwe since 2002, both through NORDEM and as an advisor to the Norwegian Embassy in Harare.

The Constitutional Referendum of Zimbabwe on 16 March 2013 marked the end of a lengthy process to pass a new constitution. The report provides an overview of the electoral and constitutional history of Zimbabwe after independence, with a more in depth description of the developments in the period from 2008 to the referendum. 

NORDEM has sent election observers to Zimbabwe since 2000, also as independent teams or experts when it has not been possible to participate in an international election observation mission. The author of this report, Kåre Vollan, has been central in NORDEM’s observations of elections in Zimbabwe.

About the author

Kåre Vollan is the director and owner of the company Quality AS. He has been working on elections in thirty countries and territories including Nepal, Kenya, Iraq, Palestine, Sudan, Egypt, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Zimbabwe. He has since 2006 provided advice to the Election Commission and politicians in Nepal, in particular on the group representation system. From 1999 to 2000, Vollan was the Deputy Head of the OSCE mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina, organising two elections. In the period from 1996 to 2009 he headed twelve OSCE/ODIHR and NORDEM election observation missions or teams. From 2003 he has issued opinions on election laws for the Council of Europe Venice Commission. Vollan, who is an applied mathematician by profession, has published a number of articles and reports on electoral and decision making issues.


Hard copies of the report may be ordered through NORDEM.

Published June 25, 2013 12:56 PM - Last modified Feb. 16, 2015 11:49 AM