Lee Andrew Bygrave

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Norwegian version of this page
Phone +47-22859339 +47-22859640
Fax +47-22859620
Visiting address St. Olavs plass 5 Domus Nova 0130 OSLO
Postal address Postboks 6706 St Olavs plass 0130 OSLO


Lee A. Bygrave was born in 1963. He was awarded a Doctorate of Laws (dr. juris) at the University of Oslo in 2000. Prior to this, he was awarded the degrees of Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in 1985 and Bachelor of Laws (Honours) in 1989 – both from the Australian National University, Canberra. He is currently Professor at the Department of Private Law, University of Oslo.

Within the Department of Private Law, Bygrave is currently Director of the Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law. He is additionally a research associate (formerly founding co-director) of the Cyberspace Law and Policy Centre at the University of New South Wales, Sydney.

His teaching appointments range across numerous institutions, including the universities of Vienna, Stockholm, Tilburg, Tartu, New South Wales and Oslo. At the latter, Bygrave is one of the principal teachers of the LL.M. program in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Law. He is also in charge of teaching English law of contract.

For the past three decades, Bygrave has been deeply involved in research and policy development of ICT regulation. He has functioned as expert advisor on various aspects of ICT regulatory policy for the European Commission, Nordic Council of Ministers, Computer Science and Technology Board of the US National Academies, UK House of Lords Committee on the Constitution, Norwegian Government, Telenor, and Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.

Bygrave has published particularly extensively within the field of privacy/data protection law where his two principal books on the subject – Data Protection Law: Approaching Its Rationale, Logic and Limits (Kluwer Law International, 2002) and Data Privacy Law: An International Perspective (Oxford University Press, 2014) – are widely acknowledged as standard international texts.

Much of his current research focuses on internet regulation. He is co-author and principle editor of Internet Governance: Infrastructure and Institutions (Oxford University Press, 2009), and he heads a major research project, “Security in Internet Governance and Networks: Analysing the Law”, with funding from the Norwegian Research Council and UNINETT Norid AS. His most recent book – Internet Governance by Contract (Oxford University Press, 2015) – critically examines the contractual frameworks for the development and use of internet infrastructure.

Bygrave serves on the editorial boards of Oslo Law Review, Computer Law & Security Review (Elsevier), Internet Policy Review (Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society) and International Data Privacy Law (Oxford University Press).

Special fields

• Privacy and data protection law
• Internet governance
• Information security
• Computer crime
• Intellectual property law
• Private international law
• Alternative dispute resolution


  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2015). Information Concepts in Law: Generic Dreams and Definitional Daylight. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies.  ISSN 0143-6503.  35(1), s 91- 120 . doi: 10.1093/ojls/gqu011
  • Medeiros, Francis Augusto & Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2015). Brazil's Marco Civil da Internet: Does it live up to the hype?. Computer Law and Security Report.  ISSN 0267-3649.  31(1), s 120- 130 . doi: 10.1016/j.clsr.2014.12.001
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). Data Privacy Law and the Internet: Policy Challenges, In  Emerging Challenges in Privacy Law: Comparative Perspectives.  Cambridge University Press.  ISBN 9781107041677.  Chapter 12.  s 259 - 289
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2013). Contract vs. statute in Internet governance, In  Research Handbook on Governance of the Internet.  Edward Elgar Publishing.  ISBN 978 1 84980 502 5.  kapittel 8.  s 168 - 197
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2013). Data Protection vs. Copyright, In  Internationalisation of Law in the Digital Information Society: Nordic Yearbook of Law and Informatics 2010–2012.  Ex Tuto Publishing.  ISBN 978-87-92598-22-6.  kapittel 4.  s 55 - 75
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2013). Personvern som lettvekter, I:  Forsker og formidler. Festskrift til Erik Magnus Boe på 70-årsdagen 17. april 2013.  Universitetsforlaget.  ISBN 978-82-15-02201-7.  kapittel 5.  s 88 - 109
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2013). The Data Difficulty in Database Protection. European intellectual property review.  ISSN 0142-0461.  35(1), s 25- 33
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew & Greenleaf, Graham (2011). Not entirely adequate but far away: Lessons from how Europe sees New Zealand data protection. Privacy Laws & Business International Newsletter.  ISSN 2046-844X.  (111), s 8- 9
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew; Kierkegaard, Sylvia; Waters, Nigel; Greenleaf, Graham; Lloyd, Ian & Saxby, Stephen (2011). 30 Years On: The Review of the Council of Europe Data Protection Convention 108. Computer Law and Security Report.  ISSN 0267-3649.  27(3), s 223- 231
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2010). Captain Surveillance v. Mr. X: An Essay on the Semantics and Politics of ‘Surveillance Society’, In  Overvåking i en rettsstat.  Fagbokforlaget.  ISBN 978-82-450-1048-0.  kapittel 2.  s 49 - 61
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2010). Privacy and data protection in an international perspective :. Scandinavian Studies in Law.  ISSN 0085-5944.  56, s 165- 200
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2010). The Body as Data? Biobank Regulation via the ‘Back Door’ of Data Protection Law. Law, Innovation and Technology.  ISSN 1757-9961.  2(1), s 1- 25
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew & Hubbard, Amanda (2009). Internet Governance goes Global, In  Internet Governance -- Infrastructure and Institutions.  Oxford University Press.  ISBN 978-0-19-956113-1.  Kapittel 6.  s 213 - 235
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew & Michaelsen, Terje Lundby (2009). Governors of Internet, In  Internet Governance -- Infrastructure and Institutions.  Oxford University Press.  ISBN 978-0-19-956113-1.  Kapittel 3.  s 92 - 125
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew & Schartum, Dag Wiese (2009). Consent, Proportionality and Collective Power, In  Reinventing Data Protection?.  Springer Science+Business Media B.V..  ISBN 978-1-4020-9497-2.  Kapittel 9.  s 157 - 173
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew; Schiavetta, Susan; Thunem, Hilde; Lange, Annebeth B. & Phillips, Edward (2009). The Naming Game: Governance of the Domain Name System, In  Internet Governance -- Infrastructure and Institutions.  Oxford University Press.  ISBN 978-0-19-956113-1.  Kapittel 5.  s 147 - 212
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2008). International agreements to protect personal data, In  Global Privacy Protection: The First Generation.  Edward Elgar Publishing.  ISBN 9781848440630.  Kapittel 1.  s 15 - 49
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2006). Strengthening privacy protection in the Internet environment: A modest program of action. Privacy Law and Policy Reporter.  ISSN 1321-3563.  11(8), s 222- 226
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2006). The Meaning of "Data" and Similar Concepts - An Issue of Growing Legal Importance, In  Festskrift till Peter Seipel.  Norstedts Juridik AB.  ISBN 91-39-01140-2.  Bidrag.  s 117 - 126
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2006). The Technologisation of Copyright: Implications for Privacy and Related Interests, In  Cyberlaw (The International Library of Essays in Law and Legal Theory. Second Series).  Ashgate.  ISBN 0-7546-2434-X.  Bind II, kapittel 35.  s 421 - 427

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  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2015). Internet Governance by Contract. Oxford University Press.  ISBN 978-0-19-968734-3.  192 s.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). Data Privacy Law: An International Perspective. Oxford University Press.  ISBN 978-0-19-967555-5.  233 s.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). Jon Bing: En Hyllest/A Tribute. Gyldendal Norsk Forlag A/S.  ISBN 9788205468504.
  • Schartum, Dag Wiese; Bekken, Anne Gunn Berge & Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). Jon Bing En hyllest///A tribute. Gyldendal Norsk Forlag A/S.  ISBN 9788205468504.  441 s.
  • Schartum, Dag Wiese & Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2011). Personvern i informasjonssamfunnet. En innføring i vern av personopplysninger. 2. utgave. Fagbokforlaget.  ISBN 978-82-450-0996-5.  311 s.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew & Bing, Jon (2009). Internet Governance -- Infrastructure and Institutions. Oxford University Press.  ISBN 978-0-19-956113-1.  246 s.

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  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2015). A Right to be Forgotten?. Communications of the ACM.  ISSN 0001-0782.  58(1), s 35- 37 . doi: 10.1145/2688491
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2015). Digitalization and Securitization of Cyberspace: Legal Challenges.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2015). Enhancing Privacy and Security in Cyberspace: What Role for Europe?.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2015). Remedying "Multiple Accountabilities Disorder": The Case of ICANN.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2015). Rettslig grunnlag og samtykke sett fra EU.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). Contractual Dominions of the Internet: A Critical Assessment.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). EU Data Protection Reform: Parallels to the Form and Fate of the Mammoth .
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). EUs kommende personvernforordning: Konsekvenser for forskningen.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). Fjerning av Internett-søkeresultater: EU-domstolens dom 13. mai 2014, sak C-131/12, Google Spain SL og Google Inc mot Agencia Española de Protección de datos (AEPD) og Mario Costeja González. Nytt i privatretten : nyhetsbrev for informasjon på det privatret.  ISSN 1501-9594.  (4), s 19- 21
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). Internet Governance by Contract: Its Rationale, Utility and Legitimacy.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). Introductory reflections on the film "Terms and Conditions May Apply".
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). Lex Facebook: A Critical Analysis of Facebook’s Terms of Service and Use.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). The Igov2 project in brief.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). The Impact of Data Privacy Law on Corporate Structures and Business Models.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2014). The Right to be Forgotten? The Recent Judgment of the CJEU.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2013). Det juridiske bakteppe for registerforskning uten samtykke, med særlig fokus på EUs forslag til ny personvernforordning.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2013). Privacy as a Cultural Value.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2013). The Predilection for Contract in Internet Governance: Boon or Bane?.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2013). Transatlantic Tensions on Data Privacy .
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). Behandling av genetiske data etter EU sitt forslag til personvernforordning.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). Big Data og personvern.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). Contractual Aspects of Internet Governance.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). Data Protection versus Copyright.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). EU Data Protection Law and Third Countries.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). Globalt problem -- global regulering?.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). Internet Governance by Contract: Its Utility.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). Privacy restraints on employers' monitoring of employees' use of confidential information.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). Styring av Internettets domenenavnsystem: Utfordringer og utvikling.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). The Legal Environment for the Internet in Norway.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). The Utility and Legitimacy of Contract in Internet Governance.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2012). Viktige forskjeller mellom EU sitt personverndirektiv og forslaget til personvernforordning.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2011). Governance of Critical Internet Resources.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2011). Legal Use of Information Concepts: A Case of "Garbage In = Garbage Out"?.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2011). Public versus Private Law in Governance of the Domain Name System and the Future Internet.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2011). The Predilection for Contract in Internet Governance: Its Rationale and Limits.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2011). The legal significance of information concepts.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2011). What is "data" in data protection law? Implications for the propertisation debate.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2010). Data Collection Limits and Notice Requirements (Including Anonymity).
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2010). Informational Concepts in Law.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2010). Reflections on the Interplay of Policy, Information and Technology, with the Concept of "iGovernment" as Point of Departure.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2010). The EU's Current Approach to the Adequacy Criterion for Transborder Data Flow.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2009). Bolstering Privacy and Tackling Surveillance in Norway: The Work of the Norwegian Privacy Commission.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2009). "Internet Governance" i et privatrettslig perspektiv.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2009). Legal Aspects of WHOIS Databases.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2009). Lovrevisjonsarbeid på personvernfeltet med fokus på direktiv 95/46/EF og personopplysningsloven: Hva har vi i vente?.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2009). Personal Data Export Restrictions and Jurisdictional Issues in a Web 2.0 World: European and Asian-Pacific Perspectives.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2009). Personopplysningslovens hovedtrekk.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2009). Personvernkommisjonens innstilling.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2009). Personvernkommisjonens innstilling vedrørende samferdselssektor.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2009). The Semantics and Politics of "Surveillance Society".
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2009). The meaning of informational concepts in law.
  • Hannemyr, Gisle; Lunde, Kjellbjørg; Coll, Line Marianne; Ulrichsen, Christine Lie & Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2009). NOU 2009:1 Individ og integritet. Personvern i det digitale samfunnet .
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2008). How to build privacy protection: A present day view of choices and difficulties.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2008, 25. januar). Personvern på nett . [Internett].  Aftenposten.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2008). The Data Retention Directive in the Norwegian Legal Context.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2008). The Impact of Surveillance on the Relationship between the State and Citizens.
  • Kalsnes, Bente & Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2008, 02. mars). EU tok Norge på sengen - Datalagringsdirektiv skulle opprinnelig ikke omfatter EØS-land.  Mandag Morgen.
  • Kalsnes, Bente & Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2008, 26. juni). Svenskene ser deg . [Internett].  Forskning.no.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2007). Data Privacy Law and the Human Body -- Oil and Water?.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2007). International Perspectives on Privacy, In  Engaging Privacy and Information Technology in a Digital Age.  The National Academies Press.  ISBN 978-0-309-10392-3.  Appendix B.  s 366 - 399
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2007). Internet Governance.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2007). Personvern, rettssikkerhet og terrorbekjempelse .
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2007). Socio-cultural requirements for development and application of privacy-enhancing technologies.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew; Greenleaf, Graham & Waters, Nigel (2007). Closing the privacy-free zones: An analysis of ALRC proposals concerning Privacy Act exemptions. Submission to the Australian Law Reform Commission on Discussion Paper 72 (Review of Australian Privacy Laws) .
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew; Greenleaf, Graham & Waters, Nigel (2007). Implementing Privacy Principles: After 20 Years, It’s Time to Enforce the Privacy Act. Submission to the Australian Law Reform Commission on Issues Paper 31 (Review of Privacy) .
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew; Greenleaf, Graham & Waters, Nigel (2007). Promoting and enforcing privacy principles: An analysis of ALRC proposals for the role of the Privacy Commissioner. Submission to the Australian Law Reform Commission on Discussion Paper 72 (Review of Australian Privacy Laws) .
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew; Greenleaf, Graham & Waters, Nigel (2007). Strengthening uniform privacy principles: An analysis of the ALRC’s proposed principles. Submission to the Australian Law Reform Commission on Discussion Paper 72 (Review of Australian Privacy Laws) .
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew & Schartum, Dag Wiese (2007). Consent versus Proportionality Principle: Are the Proportions Right?.
  • Solberg, Jan P. & Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2007, 17. april). Ingen jubel for norsk personvern . [Internett].  Personvernrapporten 2007.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2006). Governance of the Domain Name System -- Overview of Players and Processes.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2006). International instruments on protection of personal data: An overview of four decades of development.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2006). Online Alternative Dispute Resolution: Assessing the Last 5 Years of Development.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2006). Review of M. Klang and A. Murray (eds.), Human Rights in the Digital Age (London: The Glasshouse Press, 2005). Nordisk tidsskrift for menneskerettigheter.  ISSN 1503-6480.  24(1), s 82- 86
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew (2006). Technological Protection Measures: The New Privateers.

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Published Mar 26, 2008 11:09 AM - Last modified May 18, 2016 03:04 PM