Tobias Mahler

Image of Tobias Mahler
Norwegian version of this page
Phone +4722850087
Room Domus Academica, 1st floor
Available hours Mondays 12:30-13:30 (email appreciated)
Visiting address Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law Karl Johans gt. 47 Domus Academica
Postal address Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law P.O.Box 6706 St. Olavs plass N-0130 Oslo


Tobias Mahler is deputy director of the Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law. His current research focuses on regulating robotics and artificial intelligence, as well as on risk-based approaches in law, including in the context of digital identity. He has advised the EU Commission in its preparation for the Digital Services Act and participates in the development of standards for artificial intelligence. Mahler is acting deputy director of CELL, where he supervises the Legal Innovation Lab Oslo (LILO). He has been guest researcher at Stanford Law School and the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law i Freiburg, Germany.


Tags: Legal Informatics, Risk Management, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Legal Technology


  • Mahler, Tobias (2022). Regulating Artificial General Intelligence (AGI). In Custers, Bart & Fosch Villaronga, Eduard (Ed.), Law and Artificial Intelligence: Regulating AI and Applying AI in Legal Practice . T.M.C. Asser Press. ISSN 978-94-6265-522-5. p. 521–540. doi: https%3A/
  • Mahler, Tobias (2022). Between Risk Management and Proportionality: The Risk-Based Approach in the EU’s Artificial Intelligence Act Proposal. In Colonna, Liane & Greenstein, Stanley (Ed.), Law in the Era of Artificial Intelligence. Nordic Yearbook of Law and Informatics. ISSN 978-91-8892-964-8. p. 247–269.
  • Fosch Villaronga, Eduard & Mahler, Tobias (2021). Cybersecurity, safety and robots: Strengthening the link between cybersecurity and safety in the context of care robots. Computer Law and Security Review. ISSN 0267-3649. 41. doi: 10.1016/j.clsr.2021.105528. Full text in Research Archive
  • Schwemer, Sebastian Felix; Mahler, Tobias & Styri, Håkon (2021). Liability exemptions of non-hosting intermediaries: Sideshow in the Digital Services Act? Oslo Law Review. ISSN 2387-3299. 8(1), p. 4–29. doi: 10.18261/ISSN.2387-3299-2021-01-01. Full text in Research Archive
  • Fosch-Villaronga, Eduard; Felzmann, Heike; Ramos-Montero, Maria & Mahler, Tobias (2018). Cloud services for robotic nurses? Assessing legal and ethical issues in the use of cloud services for healthcare robots. IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. Proceedings. ISSN 2153-0858. doi: 10.1109/IROS.2018.8593591. Full text in Research Archive
  • McGillivray, Kevin; Esayas, Samson Yoseph & Mahler, Tobias (2016). Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Terms? Visualising Contract Terms and Data Protection Requirements for Cloud Computing Users. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS). ISSN 0302-9743. 9881, p. 39–56. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-46963-8_4.
  • Mahler, Tobias & Solhaug, Bjørnar (2016). En konseptuell modell for ugyldighet. In Hjelmeng, Erling Johan (Eds.), Ugyldighet i privatretten - minnebok for Viggo Hagstrøm. Fagbokforlaget. ISSN 978-82-450-1808-0. p. 307–335.
  • Esayas, Samson Yoseph; Mahler, Tobias; Seehusen, Fredrik; Bjørnstad, Frode & Brubakk, Veda (2015). An integrated method for compliance and risk assessment. In Samarati, Pierangela & Noubir, Guevara (Ed.), 2015 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS), Florence, 28-30 September, 2015. IEEE conference proceedings. ISSN 978-1-4673-7876-5. p. 568–576. doi: 10.1109/CNS.2015.7346870.
  • Blandhol, Sverre & Mahler, Tobias (2015). Advokaten i fremtiden. In Knudtzon, Sigurd (Eds.), Å være advokat. Universitetsforlaget. ISSN 9788215025230. p. 24–60.
  • Esayas, Samson Yoseph & Mahler, Tobias (2015). Modelling compliance risk: a structured approach. Artificial Intelligence and Law. ISSN 0924-8463. 23(3), p. 271–300. doi: 10.1007/s10506-015-9174-x.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2014). A gTLD right? Conceptual challenges in the expanding internet domain namespace. International Journal of Law and Information Technology. ISSN 0967-0769. 22(1), p. 27–48. doi: 10.1093/ijlit/eat018.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2014). Assessing Legal Risks of Closed Generic Top-Level Domains . European Journal of Law and Technology. ISSN 2042-115X. 5(3).
  • Mahler, Tobias (2014). Rechtsansprüche auf generische Top-Level Domains (gTLDs) nach der Marktliberalisierung - Eine kritische Untersuchung zentraler Begriffe des Domainnamensrechts . Juridikum (Wien). ISSN 1019-5394. p. 522–532.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2013). Governance Models for Interoperable Electronic Identities. Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology. ISSN 1901-8401. 8(2), p. 148–159.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2013). A Graphical User-Interface for Legal Texts? In Svantesson, Dan Jerker B. & Greenstein, Stanley (Ed.), Internationalisation of Law in the Digital Information Society: Nordic Yearbook of Law and Informatics 2010–2012. Ex Tuto Publishing. ISSN 978-87-92598-22-6. p. 311–327.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2012). Die Durchsetzbarkeit von Schranken-Schranken der Internetfreiheit. In Kleinwächter, Wolfgang (Eds.), Grenzen der Internetfreiheit. MIND Multistakeholder Internet Dialog. CO:LLABORATORY DISCUSSION PAPER SERIES NO. 1, #3. Internet & Gesellschaft Co:llaboratory. ISSN 978-3-9503139-6-3. p. 69–72.
  • Jøsang, Audun; Fritsch, Lothar & Mahler, Tobias (2010). Privacy Policy Referencing. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS). ISSN 0302-9743. 6264, p. 129–140.
  • Jøsang, Audun; Fritsch, Lothar & Mahler, Tobias (2010). Privacy Policy Referencing. In Katsikas, Sokratis K.; Lopez, Javier & Soriano, Miguel (Ed.), TrustBus, Trust, Privacy and Security in Digital Business, 7th International Conference, TrustBus 2010, Bilbao, Spain, August 30-31, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6264. Springer. ISSN 978-3-642-15151-4.
  • Mahler, Tobias; Ranheim, Malin Renate & Cojocarasu, Dana Irina (2010). Hvordan vurderer nasjonale domstoler datalagringsdirektivet opp mot grunn- og menneskerettigheter? In Schartum, Dag Wiese (Eds.), Overvåking i en rettsstat. Fagbokforlaget. ISSN 978-82-450-1048-0. p. 149–166.
  • Mahler, Tobias & Ranheim, Malin Renate (2010). Datalagringsdirektivet og den tyske grunnloven. Lov & Data. ISSN 0800-7853. p. 19–23.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2009). Una definición de riesgo legal. Foro de Derecho Mercantil: Revista Internacional. ISSN 1794-0427. p. 78–113.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2008). The State of the Art of Contractual Risk Management Methodologies. In Haapio, Helena (Eds.), A Proactive Approach to Contracting and Law. Turku University Applied Sciences. ISSN 9789522160171. p. 57–74.
  • Arenas, A; Wilson, M; Crompton, S; Mahler, Tobias; Schubert, L & Cojocarasu, Dana Irina (2008). Bridging the gap between legal and technical contracts. IEEE Internet Computing. ISSN 1089-7801. 12.
  • Mahler, Tobias & Olsen, Thomas (2007). Reputation Systems and Data Protection Law. In Sudarashan, Nimma (Eds.), Data Privacy and Protection : Issues and Perspectives. The Icfai University Press. ISSN 81-314-1375-6. p. 38–51.
  • Vraalsen, Fredrik; Mahler, Tobias; Lund, Mass Soldal; Hogganvik, Ida; den Braber, Folker & Stølen, Ketil (2007). Assessing Enterprise Risk Level : the CORAS Approach. In Khadraoui, Djamel & Herrmann, Francine (Ed.), Advances in Enterprise Information Technology Security. IGI Global. ISSN 978-1-59904-090-5. p. 311–333.
  • Olsen, Thomas & Mahler, Tobias (2007). Identity management and data protection law: Risk, responsibility and compliance in "Circles of Trust". Computer Law and Security Review. ISSN 0267-3649. 23(4& 5). doi: 10.1016/j.clsr.2007.05.009.
  • Olsen, Thomas; Mahler, Tobias; Seddon, Clive; Cooper, Vicky; Williams, Sarah & Valdes, Miguel [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2007). Privacy & Identity Management : Data Protection Issues in Relation to Networked Organisations Utilizing Identity Management Systems. Complex. ISSN 0806-1912.

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  • Mahler, Tobias (2019). Generic Top-Level Domains: A Study of Transnational Private Regulation. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78643-513-2. 280 p.
  • McGillivray, Kevin; Esayas, Samson Yoseph & Mahler, Tobias (2016). Give Me a Sign: Expressing Contract Terms and Data Protection Requirements Visually in Cloud Computing. Senter for Rettsinformatikk. ISBN 9788272261428. 1(2016). 20 p.

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  • Tørresen, Jim; Atsushi, Nazawa; Saplacan, Diana; Prestes, Edson; Mahler, Tobias & Weng, Yueh-Hsuan (2022). Tutorial at IROS 2022 - Ethical, Legal and User Perspectives on Robots and Systems (ELAUPORAS) – Assessments and Potential Measures.
  • Lie, Runar Hilleren & Mahler, Tobias (2022). Et nettverk av nordiske rettskilder.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2022). AI Research and Europe’s Upcoming AI Law.
  • Bygrave, Lee Andrew; Mahler, Tobias & Lintvedt, Mona Naomi (2022). AI Act og Norges handlingsrom .
  • Mahler, Tobias (2022). Nye regler om kunstig intelligens.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2021). Perspectives on Cybergovernance.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2021). Nytt rammeverk fra EU om kunstig intelligens.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2021). Menneske mot maskin. Fordeler og ulemper ved bruken av AI.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2021). Rett og roboter.
  • Tørresen, Jim; Saplacan, Diana; Lintvedt, Mona Naomi; Mahler, Tobias & Fosch-Villaronga, Eduard (2021). Tutorial: Ethical and Legal Assessments Related to Robots and Systems .
  • Saplacan, Diana; Tørresen, Jim; Mahler, Tobias & Fosch-Villaronga, Eduard (2021). Robots and Society: Ethical, Legal, and Technical Perspectives on Integrating Robots in the Home- and Healthcare Systems and Services (RO-SO).
  • Mahler, Tobias & Schwemer, Sebastian Felix (2020). Reforming the liability of non-hosting intermediaries.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2020). Regulating AI Risk.
  • Aronsen, Jan Magnus; De Smedt, Koenraad; Heggland, Ingrid; Dingsør, Liv; Tronstad, Stein & Pedersen, Ole Petter [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2020). Hvordan få økt deling og gjenbruk av forskningsdata? ISSN 1894-8995.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2020). The intermediary liability of DNS actors.
  • Mahler, Tobias & Eduard, Fosch Villaronga (2019). Cybersecurity Considerations for (Care) Robots.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2019). Robot impact assessments.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2019). Robotik, artificiell intelligens, skador och försäkringsrätten; kommentar.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2019). Multistakeholderism in the Transnational Private Regulation of the Internet.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2019). The future of Law: Regulating robots and AI.
  • Mahler, Tobias; Bygrave, Lee Andrew & Tørresen, Jim (2019). The VIROS Project: Vulnerability in the Robot Society.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2019). Introduction to Robot law.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2019). The VIROS project: Vulnerability in the Robot Society.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2019). Rett og roboter.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2019). Rettslige problemstillinger rundt kunstig intelligens.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2018). Hvordan forholder jussen seg til AI?
  • Fosch-Villaronga, Eduard; Felzmann, Heike; Ramos-Montero, Maria & Mahler, Tobias (2018). Cloud services for robotic nurses? Assessing legal and ethical issues in the use of cloud services for healthcare robots.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2015). Desafíos de la Privacidad Digital (panel).
  • Weitzenboeck, Emily Mary; Mahler, Tobias & Jones, Andrew J.I. (2015). Introduction. Artificial Intelligence and Law. ISSN 0924-8463. 23(3), p. 197–199. doi: 10.1007/s10506-015-9171-0.
  • McGillivray, Kevin; Esayas, Samson Yoseph & Mahler, Tobias (2015). Using Technology to Enhance Confidentiality and Regulatory Compliance by Design. Lov & Data. ISSN 0800-7853. 123(3), p. 21–24.
  • Esayas, Samson Yoseph; Mahler, Tobias & Solhaug, Bjørnar (2015). An Integrated Approach for Compliance and Security Risk Assessment. Lov & Data. ISSN 0800-7853. 121, p. 32–35.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2014). Visualisation of legal norms, Jon Bing: En Hyllest/A Tribute. Gyldendal Norsk Forlag A/S. ISSN 9788205468504. p. 137–153.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2014). New Generic Top Level Domains: Legal and Economic Issues.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2013). New gTLD Agreement.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2013). eSociety Legal Issues.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2013). Public Policy Issues Regarding New Generic Top Level Domains.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2013). Vurdering av personvernkonsekvenser -- Privacy Impact Assessment.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2012). From Delegation to Allocation: On the Law and Economics of gTLD Policy.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2012). Internet Governance and new gTLDs.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2012). Managing legal risks of new gTLDs.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2012). New top-level domains: Regulatory issues, dispute resolution and rights protection.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2012). Criteria for Assessing ICANN’s New TLD Program.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2012). A Graphical User Interface for Legal Texts?
  • Mahler, Tobias (2012). Nye Internett Toppdomener.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2011). Legal Risk Assessment of Introducing a New Internet Top-Level Domain.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2011). New generic Top-Level-Domains (gTLDs).
  • Mahler, Tobias (2011). Analyse av kontraktsrisiko.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2011). Rettslige krav til risikovurderinger for IDforvaltning.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2011). Hvordan kan rettslige spørsmål integreres i en risikovurdering?
  • Mahler, Tobias (2011). Datalagringsdirektivet slik tyske og rumenske domstoler har vurdert det.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2010). The lawyer in 2020.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2010). Juridisk risikostyring i ID-systemer: Verktøybasert kontraktanalyse.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2010). Lagringsdirektivet kan koste 2 Mrd. [Newspaper]. Computerworld.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2010). Juristisches Risikomanagement: Eine Methode zur Ergänzung rechtlicher Analysen?
  • Mahler, Tobias (2009). Jurister på vei til Neandertal? Omtale av Richard Susskind: The end of lawyers? Lov & Data. ISSN 0800-7853. p. 20–21.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2009). Visualising legal risk.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2009). Rettslige risikovurderinger: metoder og modeller.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2009). Hvordan analysere legale risikoaspekter i tillitshåndtering?
  • Mahler, Tobias (2009). Legal risk management.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2009). Visualising Legal Risk.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2008). How can we analyze contractual risk? Contracting Excellence. ISSN 1937-9765. 1(5), p. 15–16.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2008). Defining Legal Risk. In Nystén-Haarala, Soili (Eds.), Corporate Contracting Capabilities : Conference proceedings and other writings. University of Joensuu, Department of Law. ISSN 978-952-219-126-7. p. 51–77.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2008). A method for legal risk management, exemplified in a case study on IT outsourcing.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2008). Rettslig risiko og compliance.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2007). Defining Legal Risk.
  • Mahler, Tobias (2010). Legal Risk Management. Developing and Evaluating Elements of a Method for Proactive Legal Analyses, With a Particular Focus on Contracts. Det juridiske fakultet - Universitetet i Oslo. ISSN 1890-2375.

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Published Mar. 27, 2008 9:53 AM - Last modified Aug. 30, 2022 9:44 AM