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Radicalization and Resistance

The project explored the relationship between everyday religion, stigma, extremism and prevention.

The project «Radicalization and Resistance» was led by Sveinung Sandberg. It consisted of five subprojects.

Resistance to extremism

This project explored attitudes and resistance to extremism among young Muslims. We examined how resistance was expressed through interpretations of Islamic concepts and narrative strategies such as ignoring it, ridiculing it and using emotional expressions about it. Ninety young Muslims were interviewed, and they described the struggle between moderate and more extreme factions of Islam. The studies demonstrate how violent jihad is negotiated and resisted on a daily basis within Muslim communities. Read more

Discrimination and reactions

This project examined hostility and racism towards Muslims, and the ways in which young ethnic minorities resisted hate and discrimination. By conducting a further 40 interviews with young people of ethnic minority backgrounds, we investigated different forms of discrimination and new forms of social mobilization (Black Lives Matter). We showed how young Muslims downplay hostility and racism, enter into dialogue, talk back, use humor, as well as mobilizing for social protest. Read more

Street culture and jihadism

This project examined the relationship between jihadism and street culture. Various data sets were used, the most important being one year of ethnographic fieldwork among young street criminals in Oslo. Unlike the dominant literature in this field, the project findings revealed the existence of widespread resistance to jihadism among young marginalized ethnic minorities. The resistance was based on a perception of jihadist terrorists as weak and cowardly, qualities that were very much despised in the street culture. We also describe why some people in this environment are drawn towards extremism. Read more

Online radicalization

This project investigated how jihadist organizations use the Internet and social media. One issue explored was the close symbolic connection between street culture and Western extremist culture. Its findings indicate that a new hybrid street-jihadi culture has emerged, which has a strong appeal for young men who are marginalized and sensation-seeking and glorify violence in any form. Read more

Prevention of extremism

This project explored the experiences of Muslims seeking to prevent extremism. State efforts to tackle jihadist milieus were also studied. The findings indicate how the new policy field of preventing radicalization and violent extremism largely emerged as a response to increased activity in Norwegian jihadist milieus. Read more

The research project “Radicalization and Resistance” resulted in 40 scientific publications. Nineteen scholars from six different countries have published using data from the project. Eight master’s students were also involved. 

Financing

The project is financed by the Research Council of Norway, through the SAMKUL-program.

Publications

  • Ellefsen, Rune & Sandberg, Sveinung (2022). Everyday Prevention of Radicalization: The impacts of family, peer and police intervention. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. ISSN 1057-610X. doi: 10.1080/1057610X.2022.2037185. Full text in Research Archive
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Sandberg, Sveinung (2022). Black Lives Matter: The role of emotions in political engagement. Sociology. ISSN 0038-0385. Full text in Research Archive
  • Linge, Marius; Sandberg, Sveinung & Tutenges, Sébastien (2022). Confluences of Street Culture and Jihadism: The Spatial, Bodily, and Narrative Dimensions of Radicalization. Terrorism and Political Violence. ISSN 0954-6553. p. 1–17. doi: 10.1080/09546553.2022.2042269. Full text in Research Archive
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Jämte, Jan (2022). The causes, content and consequences of repression: A framework for analyzing protest control in the counter-extremism era. Social Movement Studies. ISSN 1474-2837. doi: 10.1080/14742837.2022.2067140. Full text in Research Archive
  • Ellefsen, Rune; Banafsheh, Azin & Sandberg, Sveinung (2022). Resisting racism in everyday life: From ignoring to confrontation and protest. Ethnic and Racial Studies. ISSN 0141-9870. doi: 10.1080/01419870.2022.2094716.
  • Banafsheh, Azin; Ellefsen, Rune & Sandberg, Sveinung (2021). "Jævla terrorist!" Muslimhets og hverdagsmotstand. In Ødegård, Guro & Pedersen, Willy (Ed.), UNGDOMMEN. Cappelen Damm Akademisk. ISSN 978-82-02-73299-8. p. 317–335. Full text in Research Archive
  • Ellefsen, Rune (2021). Why not talk about repression? Radical Activism and its Responses to Repression. PArtecipazione e COnflitto. ISSN 1972-7623. 14(1), p. 480–496. doi: 10.1285/i20356609v14i1p480. Full text in Research Archive
  • Linge, Marius (2021). Muslim narratives of desistance among Norwegian street criminals: Stories of reconciliation, purification and exclusion. European Journal of Criminology. ISSN 1477-3708. p. 1–18. doi: 10.1177/14773708211018648.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Sandberg, Sveinung (2021). A repertoire of everyday resistance: Young Muslims’ responses to anti-Muslim hostility . Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. ISSN 1369-183X. doi: 10.1080/1369183X.2021.1894913. Full text in Research Archive
  • Qvotrup Jensen, Sune; Fuglsang Larsen, Jeppe & Sandberg, Sveinung (2021). Rap, Islam and Jihadi Cool: The attractions of the Western jihadi subculture. Crime, Media, Culture: An International Journal. ISSN 1741-6590. doi: 10.1177/17416590211025573. Full text in Research Archive
  • Tutenges, Sébastien & Sandberg, Sveinung (2021). Street culture meets extremism: How Muslims involved in street life and crime oppose jihadism. British Journal of Criminology. ISSN 0007-0955. doi: 10.1093/bjc/azab117. Full text in Research Archive
  • Sandberg, Sveinung & Ibarra Rojas, Lucero (2021). A farewell to the lone hero researcher: team research and writing. Crime, law and social change. ISSN 0925-4994. p. 1–18. doi: 10.1007/s10611-021-10006-x. Full text in Research Archive
  • Ellefsen, Rune (2020). Prevention of radicalization as an emergent field of plural policing in Norway: The accelerating role of militant Islamists. Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing (NJSP). ISSN 2703-7045. 8(1), p. 1–23. doi: 10.18261/ISSN.2703-7045-2021-01-03.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Jan, Jämte (2020). Countering extremism(s): Differences in local prevention of left-wing, right-wing and Islamist extremism. Journal for Deradicalization. ISSN 2363-9849. 24(Fall), p. 191–231.
  • Myhre Sunde, Hans; Ilan, Jonathan & Sandberg, Sveinung (2020). A Cultural Criminology of ‘New’ Jihad: Insights from Propaganda Magazines. Crime, Media, Culture: An International Journal. ISSN 1741-6590. doi: 10.1177/1741659020915509. Full text in Research Archive
  • Sandberg, Sveinung & Colvin, Sarah (2020). ‘ISIS is not Islam’: Epistemic Injustice, Everyday Religion, and Young Muslims’ Narrative Resistance. British Journal of Criminology. ISSN 0007-0955. 60(6), p. 1585–1605. doi: 10.1093/bjc/azaa035. Full text in Research Archive
  • Tutenges, Sébastien (2019). Narrative ethnography under pressure: Researching storytelling on the street. In Fleetwood, Jennifer; Presser, Lois; Sandberg, Sveinung & Ugelvik, Thomas (Ed.), The Emerald Handbook of Narrative Criminology. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. ISSN 9781787690066.
  • Ilan, Jonathan & Sandberg, Sveinung (2019). How 'gangsters' become jihadists: Bourdieu, criminology and the crime-terrorism nexus. European Journal of Criminology. ISSN 1477-3708. 16(3), p. 278–294. doi: 10.1177/1477370819828936. Full text in Research Archive
  • Mohamed, Idil Abdi Abdulle & Sandberg, Sveinung (2019). "Jeg kan ikke se søstre gå i den fella". Unge muslimer som forebyggere. In Lid, Stian & Heierstad, Geir (Ed.), Forebygging av radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme. Norske handlemåter i møtet med terror. Gyldendal Akademisk. ISSN 9788205518346. p. 199–222.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung & Andersen, Jan Christoffer (2019). Opposing violent extremism through counternarratives: Four forms of narrative resistance. In Fleetwood, Jennifer; Presser, Lois; Sandberg, Sveinung & Ugelvik, Thomas (Ed.), The Emerald Handbook of Narrative Criminology. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. ISSN 9781787690066. p. 445–466. Full text in Research Archive
  • Andersen, Jan Christoffer & Sandberg, Sveinung (2018). Islamic State Propaganda: Between social movement framing and subcultural provocation. Terrorism and Political Violence. ISSN 0954-6553. 32(7), p. 1506–1526. doi: 10.1080/09546553.2018.1484356. Full text in Research Archive

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  • Linge, Marius & Bangstad, Sindre (2020). Salafisme i Norge: historien om Islam Net og Profetens Ummah. Frekk Forlag AS. ISBN 978-82-93097-98-3. 114 p.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung; Andersen, Jan Christoffer; Gasser, Tiffany Linn Utvær; Linge, Marius; Mohamed, Idil Abdi Abdulle & Shokr, Samah [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2018). Unge muslimske stemmer: Om tro og ekstremisme. Universitetsforlaget. ISBN 9788215031262. 280 p.

View all works in Cristin

  • Ellefsen, Rune (2021). BLM i Norge skapte ny bølge med aktivister. [Internet]. NRK.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Sandberg, Sveinung (2021). Black Lives Matter: The role of emotions for mobilization and demobilization.
  • Ellefsen, Rune (2021). Forsker på tiltak mot radikalisering: Har blandede erfaringer med politiet. [Newspaper]. Dagsavisen.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Jämte, Jan (2021). Violent extremism is not a uniform phenomenon: The key differences in prevention of left-wing, right-wing, and Islamist extremism. Right Now!.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Jämte, Jan (2021). Violent extremism is not a uniform phenomenon: The key differences in prevention of left-wing, right-wing, and Islamist extremism.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Sandberg, Sveinung (2021). Interrupting radicalization: The impacts of family, peer and police intervention.
  • Jämte, Jan & Ellefsen, Rune (2021). Violent extremism is not a uniform phenomenon .
  • Ellefsen, Rune (2021). The emergence of radicalization policing in Nordic countries. Nordic Criminology Blog.
  • Banafsheh, Azin & Ellefsen, Rune (2021). "Jævla terrorist!" Muslimhets og hverdagsmotstand.
  • Banafsheh, Azin (2021). Alina (18): – Jeg ble kalt «muslimske faen». [Newspaper]. VG.
  • Tutenges, Sébastien (2021). Street culture meets jihadism.
  • Tutenges, Sébastien (2021). Wild Pursuits.
  • Tutenges, Sébastien (2021). Street-level Counter-Terrorism.
  • Tutenges, Sébastien (2021). Varieties of Violence.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2021). MuslimVoices: Good practice exchange.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Sandberg, Sveinung (2021). Interrupting radicalization: The impact of family and peer-based vs. police-based intervention.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Sandberg, Sveinung (2021). Black Lives Matter: The role of emotions for mobilization and demobilization.
  • Ellefsen, Rune; Sjøen, Martin Meggele & Jämte, Jan (2021). Key dilemmas in the prevention of radicalization and violent extremism.
  • Banafsheh, Azin & Pedersen, Willy (2021). "Jævla terrorist!" Muslimhets og hverdagsmotsand.
  • Banafsheh, Azin (2021). "Jævla terrorist!" Muslimhets og hverdagsmotstand.
  • Mohamed, Idil Abdi Abdulle (2020). Hvordan er det å vokse opp som ung muslim i Norge?
  • Banafsheh, Azin; Ellefsen, Rune & Sandberg, Sveinung (2020). Hvordan møter muslimer religiøs hets? Dagbladet. ISSN 0805-3766.
  • Ellefsen, Rune (2020). Opponent på NKVTS-seminar: Mental health issues in prevention of violent extremism.
  • Ellefsen, Rune; Jakobsen, Siw Ellen & Banafsheh, Azin (2020). How do young Muslims deal with hate speech and verbal assaults? [Internet]. ScienceNorway.no.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Sandberg, Sveinung (2020). A repertoire of everyday resistance: How young Muslims' respond to anti-Muslim hostility.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Jan, Jämte (2020). Being labelled as “violent extremists”: The consequences of soft repression. Right Now!.
  • Jakobsen, Siw Ellen & Ellefsen, Rune (2020). Hva skjer når man kaller aktivistgrupper for voldelige ekstremister? [Internet]. Forskning.no.
  • Ellefsen, Rune (2020). Hvordan unge muslimer opplever og reagerer på muslimhets.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Mohamed, Idil (2020). Kunnskapsoppsummering til Bufdir: "Å være unge muslim i Norge: hverdagstro, opplevelser av og reaksjoner på muslimhets".
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Skogvang, Stig Gøran (2020). Ekstremisme. [Radio]. Radio Nova.
  • Ellefsen, Rune (2020). Preventing radicalization and violent extremism in Norway: The emergence of a new field of policy and practice.
  • Ellefsen, Rune; Banafsheh, Azin & Jakobsen, Siw Ellen (2020). Hvordan møter unge muslimer hets? [Internet]. Forskning.no.
  • Ellefsen, Rune (2020). Differences in local prevention of left-wing, right-wing and Islamist extremism.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2019). Team ethnography and public criminology.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2019). Street-jihadi nexus.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2019). Everyday Islam and violent extremism: Counter narratives and public sociology.
  • Ellefsen, Rune; Gule, Lars & Høgestøl, Sofie A.E. (2019). Fremmedkrigere og terror.
  • Ellefsen, Rune & Jämte, Jan (2019). Being labeled as “violent extremists”: The effects of soft repression on individual, organizational and movement levels.
  • Ellefsen, Rune (2019). Managing militant Islamism in Norway (2009-2019): A process-oriented perspective.
  • Tutenges, Sébastien (2019). Street culture meets jihadism.
  • Tutenges, Sébastien (2018). Modstand mod jihadisme.
  • Tutenges, Sébastien (2018). Oppostion from the street.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2018). Unge Muslimske Stemmer: Om tro og ekstremisme.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung; Andersen, Jan Christoffer; Gasser, Tiffany Linn Utvær; Mohamed, Idil Abdi Abdulle & Linge, Marius (2018). Unge muslimske stemmer.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2018). How ‘gangsters’ become jihadists (and why most don’t): Bourdieu, criminology and the crime-terrorism nexus.
  • Linge, Marius; Andersen, Jan Christoffer; Mohamed, Idil Abdi Abdulle & Shokr, Samah (2018). Jihadism, faith and everyday resistance.
  • Linge, Marius (2018). Hva skaper radikalisering?
  • Linge, Marius & Mohamed, Idil Abdi Abdulle (2018). Jihadism, faith and everyday resistance.
  • Linge, Marius; Shokr, Samah; Mohamed, Idil Abdi Abdulle; Gasser, Tiffany Linn Utvær; Andersen, Jan Christoffer & Sandberg, Sveinung (2018). Jihad - det er jackpot for dem.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2018). Gatekultur, radikalisering og motstand.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2018). Gammel gatekultur møter en ny jihadi cool.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung; Linge, Marius; Andersen, Jan Christoffer; Mohamed, Idil Abdi Abdulle; Shokr, Samah & Gasser, Tiffany Linn Utvær (2018). Jihadism, faith and everyday resistance.
  • Linge, Marius (2018). Jihadism, faith and everyday resistance.
  • Andersen, Jan Christoffer; Linge, Marius; Mohamed, Idil Abdi Abdulle & Tutenges, Sébastien (2018). Motstand mot ekstremisme.
  • Tutenges, Sébastien (2018). Gatekultur og jihadisme.
  • Andersen, Jan Christoffer & Sandberg, Sveinung (2018). Unge norske muslimer driver «hverdagsmotstand» mot ekstremisme . Aftenposten Viten. ISSN 2464-3033.
  • Tutenges, Sébastien (2018). Street crime and jihadism.
  • Linge, Marius; Shokr, Samah; Mohamed, Idil Abdi Abdulle; Gasser, Tiffany Linn Utvær; Andersen, Jan Christoffer & Sandberg, Sveinung (2018). Jihad - det er jackpot for dem.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2018). How 'gangsters' become jihadists (and why most don't): Bourdieu, criminology and the crime-terrorism nexus .
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2018). Changes in Street Culture: The new role of religion.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2017). Gatekultur og Jihadisme.
  • Shokr, Samah & Linge, Marius (2017). Forskere forklarer hvorfor unge muslimske menn og kvinner tiltrekkes, eller motstår, voldelig jihadisme.
  • Linge, Marius (2017). Resistance towards jihadism among Young Norwegian Salafis.
  • Tutenges, Sébastien (2017). Emotional barriers to jihadism.
  • Sandberg, Sveinung (2017). The street-jihadi nexus.

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Published Sep. 19, 2016 3:22 PM - Last modified Mar. 7, 2022 6:30 PM

Participants

Detailed list of participants