English abstracts

Katja Luopajärvi: International Accountability for Honour Killings as Human Rights Violations

This article provides an analysis of honour killings as violations of international human rights law and discusses a range of different approaches that can be used to attain international accountability for honour killings. It focuses on positive obligations imposed on states by international human rights treaties, in particular in relation to the right to life and the prohibition against discrimination. These rights have been chosen as they are the rights that are primarily affected by the crime of honour killing, and because they represent different ways of seeing honour killings as human rights violations. It is argued that honour killings are no longer seen merely as crimes to be dealt with under domestic legislation, but as violations of international human rights law where states fail to exercise due diligence in preventing and responding to honour killings.

Keywords: Honour killings, right to life, principle of non-discrimination, positive obligations, non-state actors.

Michael Slavicek: Anti-discrimination clauses and special conditions in Swedish Public Procurement

This article reviews the extent to which contracting authorities may lay down special “social” conditions relating to the performance of a contract when such conditions are in accordance with Community law as interpreted by the European Court of Justice.The Swedish government recommends authorities to insert an anti-discrimination clause in the public contracts. A preliminary investigation of public contracts finalized in the first year of the new amendment by the National Board for Public Procurement found that only a minority of them had incorporated the clause.

Keywords: Swedish Act on Public Procurement, special conditions, Community law, anti-discrimination.

Ludger Honnefelder: Human Rights and Democracy in the Face of Scientific and Medical Developments – Defending Scientific, Medical and Technological Ethics

To an unexpected extent, science and technology have become an ethic-legal challenge. The reasons are complex, but while it is difficult it is urgently necessary to try to find an effective response to this challenge. This paper tries to address two basic questions that arise in this connection: What are the most important reasons for this development? And where can the starting-points for an effective response be found?

Keywords: Bioethics, scientific ethics, medical ethics, technological ethics, research ethics.

Torkel Brekke: Historical Perspectives on the Development of Religious Nationalism under U Nu and its Implications for Freedom of Religion in modern Burma

The subject of this article is the religious nationalism that developed in early independent Burma and its consequences for freedom of religion. U Nu and the political elites of early independent Burma faced considerable pressure to promote Buddhism at the expense of other religious traditions. This pressure came from two directions. Firstly, there was internal pressure from the Buddhist Order. The monks became more politically assertive during the colonial period. Secondly, there was external pressure from ethnic minorities that challenged the political legitimacy of the centre. U Nu tended to see minority rights as an obstacle to national unity much in the same way as the present military government.

Keywords: Burma, U Nu, religious nationalism, freedom of religion, Buddhism.