Aktuell nordisk sosialrettsforskning

Her er en oversikt over forskning diskutert i nettverket til nå.

Aktuell forskning

Jivegård, David og Sandegård, Elin, Kritik av den kritiska rättspositivismens kritik: den heliga apriorismen. Retfærd. Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift, 170 (3 & 4), 51–68, 5.

Abstract:

Immanent kritik möjliggör att samhälle och rätt kritiseras utifrån sina egna premisser. Den visar hur det som framstår som nödvändigt egentligen bara är tillfälligt och beroende, och är därför ett viktigt metodologiskt verktyg inom den kritiska teorin. Särskilt inflytelserik i den skandinaviska rättsvetenskapen har den immanenta kritiken i Kaarlo Tuoris kritiska rättspositivism varit. I den här artikeln kritiserar vi Tuoris immanenta kritik-begrepp genom att genomföra en immanent kritik av fyra av hans texter. Vår kritik visar att Tuoris immanenta kritik är beroende av en delning av rätten i rättsordning och rättsliga praktiker: den utförs från de rättsliga praktikernas position och bedrivs på rättsordningens ytnivå genom att tillämpa normativa måttstockar som hämtas ur rättsordningens djup. Tuoris delning av rätten innebär att rätten tillförs element som inte tillhör rätten själv. Rättsordningen uppträder som ett förtänkt, transcendent element, vilket fråntar kritiken möjligheten att vara immanent. Att kritiken inte är immanent förtar dess möjligheter att avslöja det uppfattat nödvändiga som tillfälligt och beroende. Enligt vår mening riskerar Tuoris föreslagna immanenta kritik att (re)producera rättsordningen som en yta otillgänglig för kritiken, bakom vilken förtryckande strukturer och mekanismer kan förbli dolda.

Rognlien, Ida Gundersby, Fattigdomsdiskriminering i nordiske velferdssamfunn – grunnleggende rettsdogmatiske spørsmål. Retfærd. Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift. 1 / 2021 (168)

Abstract:
Basert på kritisk konstruktivistisk feministisk rettsteori, søker artikkelen å belyse grunnleggende rettsdogmatiske fattigdomsspørsmål i de nordiske velferdssamfunn. Med utgangspunkt i hovedargumenter i forfatterens Ph.D. avhandling, ut fra en «nedenifra»-tilnærming og ved anvendelse av eksempler fra primært dansk retts- og forvaltningspraksis, reises spørsmål om hvordan retten til grunnleggende forsørgelse og forbud mot diskriminering bør forstås i et individperspektiv. Det argumenteres for at det er en risiko for at rettslige strukturer og argumentasjon genererer og vedlikeholder fattigdomsproblemer. For det andre, at både retten til grunnleggende forsørgelse og forbud mot diskriminering er utilstrekkelige, men nødvendige rettslige tilnærminger når formålet er å motvirke fattigdomsfeller for den enkelte. For det tredje, at det må være en rettslig oppmerksomhet mot den strukturelle, interseksjonelle karakteren av det diskriminerende fenomenet på spill. Til sist argumenteres det for at fokus på individets posisjoner og muligheter har potensiale til å kunne identifisere de relevante interseksjonelle problemene og stille spørsmål ved rettslige strukturer, konsepter og distinksjoner som reproduserer og opprettholder ulikhet i velferdssamfunnet.

Katzin M. Taking Care of Business: A Study of the Governing of Care Choice Systems in Swedish Home Care. Lund: Lund University (Media-Tryck), 2020. 278 s.

Abstract:
This study provides an account of the introduction of care choice systems into the provision of home care by Swedish municipalities. Care choice systems in elder care are at the centre of a conflict about the broader principles of the welfare state. Studying them is thus a way of revealing the outlines of this conflict. In this thesis, I show how the introduction of care choice systems changes the nature of public administration, the strategies officials deploy, and the tools they use. This helps to deepen the understanding of how quasi- market reforms transform public administration at the municipal level, while providing insight into the legal strategies used by public authorities in governing welfare. The thesis also provides new insights into how parts of the Swedish model have evolved during the last decade.

Methodologically, the study is based on an in-depth empirical investigation of the roles ‘public law’ and ‘private law’ play in realizing and shaping new forms of governing. I pursue a ‘law in practice’ approach grounded in a Foucauldian methodology, combined with a theoretical discussion of the outcomes of the study. One central finding of the study is that quasi-marketization leads not to a simple deregulation of public sector services, but rather to a reconfiguration of the relationship between state and capital. This entails new ways of governing, such as contractualization and standardization, as well as a new role for public administration and bureaucracy. The legal strategies adopted by the municipalities are complex and, in general, aim at regulating the private providers through the contract almost as if they were part of the municipality, while at the same time treating the municipal provider as if it was a private company.

The introduction of care choice systems has created new and specific conflicts and contradictions in the governing of home care for older persons. The municipal responsibility for the quality of elder care, the need to ensure the system has political legitimacy, and a political will to support small businesses combine to produce a situation in which public spending on welfare is channelled into the support and monitoring of businesses within the sector. To an increasing extent, public officials who’s job it is to enforce regulations and monitor private actors end up ‘taking care of business’. Crucially, this leads to a situation in which low- quality services and fraudulent behaviour cannot properly be dealt with. It is clear that, despite the great amount of work that the public authorities put into constructing, supporting, and monitoring the quasi-market, many apparent problems still remain.

David Jivegård, Sociala rättigheters kausala kedjor: skisser till en förklaring av icke-monetära sociala rättigheters horisontala plan, Retfærd Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift 3/2020 (166)

Abstract:
Sociala rättigheter och skyldigheter uppträder som bekant inte i ett vacuum, men hur redogör vi för detta inom rättsvetenskapen? Med utgångspunkt i exemplet rätt till äldreomsorg skisserar jag en möjlig förståelse av detta förhållande. Jag föreslår att sociala rättigheter bör förstås med utgångspunkt i de två typerna monetära sociala rättigheter och icke-monetära sociala rättigheter. För den senare typen, genom vilken människor i större utsträckning omgärdas av system, hävdar jag att rättigheter och skyldigheter inte kan förstås som slutna konstanta eller symmetriska förhållanden. I stället behöver de rörelser och förändringar som kontinuerligt sker i samhället inkluderas i förståelsen. Jag argumenterar för att ett horisontalt perspektiv på rätten möjliggör en sådan inkludering. Vidare argumenterar jag för att perspektivet öppnar nya sätt att tala om de sociala rättigheternas gemenskapande funktion.

Nicole Stybnarova, Belonging in Danish Migration Law in the 19th Century, working paper, 2021

Abstract:
Danish migration law is an enduring subject of international research scrutiny for it is an outstanding example of a larger trend of fortification of migration rules through utilization of affectionate criteria constructive of the notion of national belonging. This article challenges the implicit view that the requirement of affective relationship to a nation conductive to rules on immigration and residence in traditional immigration states today is only a recent phenomenon. It offers a close study of the legislative procedure adopting Danish immigration act of 1874 in its socio-political context and compares the design of selection of migrants instituted in the act with provisions of other contemporary migration laws in the US and Austro-Hungarian Empire. The historical comparative inquiry shows that Danish migration law was exceptionally elaborate in migrant-selection for the 19th century standard of immigration and residence laws because it involved both positive and negative criteria and a long period of scrutiny over immigrants’ economic relations before belonging to the state was approved. It demonstrates that the act of 1874 introduced a system of immigration and residence rules culminating in deserving belonging to the Danish community based on essentially affectionate criteria of particular working ethics and financial responsibility embodied in the contemporary social security system.

Annika Frida Petersen, Sundhedsretlig understøttelse af health literacy for udsatte borgere, Nordisk socialrättslig tidsskrift NST 27–28.2021

Abstract:
The right to health is a fundamental right in the Scandinavian welfare states.
One of the fundamental prerequisites to realizing the right to health is supporting
the health literacy of the individual patient in the health care system.
Health literacy describes the patients’ abilities and prerequisites for caring for
their health along with the supports needed to access, understand, appraise and
use health information and services to make decisions about their health.
Supporting health literacy is especially crucial for vulnerable patients who
often have one or more chronic diseases that they need to live with and manage
to the best of their abilities. Using the case of psychiatric patients, this article
highlights examples of how health authorities and law makers can support the
health literacy of vulnerable patients through greater accessibility in health
care services and through health care constructions that empower the patient
to care for their health. It is argued that health literacy needs to be a focal point
in the health care system on the same level as the actual care that is provided
by the health care professionals. The patients will in many cases be in charge of
managing their own health care and supporting and educating the individual
patient is a fundamental obligation for the health care system as health literacy
is intertwined with basic rights such as the right to health, the right to information
and the right to self-determination.

Katarina Hyltén-Cavallius, Citizenship at the Edges of Freedom of Movement, Modern Studies in European Law, Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2020.

Abstract:
This book critically analyses the case law on EU citizenship in relation to its personal free movement rights, its status on the primary law level, and EU fundamental rights protection. The book exposes the legal space where EU citizenship variably loses or gains legal relevance, and questions how this space can be overcome.

Through a thorough analysis of the core personal free movement rights of residence, family reunification, equal treatment and equal political participation, the book demonstrates how the development of the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union has generated a two-tiered legal concept of EU citizenship. Depending on the nature of the legal claim at hand, EU citizenship may appear as a poor legal personhood for exercising free movement rights; sometimes pushing the individual who is in a factual cross-border situation out of the scope of Union law. Contrastingly, in other strands of the jurisprudence, we see EU citizenship and its primary law levelled-rights stretch the jurisdictional scope of Union law, triggering the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights for review of the individual case.

The book enhances the understanding of the legal concept of EU citizenship in Union law and contributes to the debate on the future development of EU citizenship, its relationship to the Charter, and the strength of its legal position for the person who exercises freedom of movement.

Publisert 8. nov. 2021 15:47 - Sist endret 22. des. 2021 10:56